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Chapter 12Stress, Adjustment, and Health Differences : 

Chapter 12Stress, Adjustment, and Health Differences

Personality Disorders : 

Personality Disorders Personality disorders include ongoing patterns of behavior that impair the person's functioning and well-being Borderline personality disorder

Borderline personality disorder : 

Borderline personality disorder Beginning by early adulthood, unstable impulse control, interpersonal relationships, moods, and self-image. Persistent or recurrent As indicated by five or more of the following:

Borderline personality disorder : 

Borderline personality disorder Frantic efforts to avoid real of imagined abandonment A pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal relationships characterized by alternating between extremes of idealization and devaluation Identity disturbance: unstable self-image or sense of self Impulsivity in at least two areas that are potentially self-damaging (substance abuse, reckless driving)

Borderline personality disorder : 

Borderline personality disorder Recurrent suicidal behaviour, gestures of threats or self-mutilating behaviour Affective instability due to marked reactivity of mood Chronic feelings of emptiness Inappropriate, intense anger or difficulty controlling anger Transient, stress-related paranoid ideation or severe dissociative symptoms

Trying to understand personality disorders First causal model – diathesis-stress

Diathesis-Stress causal model : 

Diathesis-Stress causal model Diathesis—the predisposition of the body to a disease or disorder However, the disease or disorder does not materialize unless it is also elicited from the environment Stress – a difficult life experience

Trying to understand personality disorders Second causal model – biopsychosocial

Biopsychosocial : 

Biopsychosocial This model views that the etiology of challenging human concerns can best be understood through an examination of the interaction of biological, psychological and social factors. We can use this to understand personality For example, personality disorders, personality & stress, & so forth.

Biopsychosocial perspective : 

Biopsychosocial perspective Why does someone become stressed? A person may have genetic susceptibility for depression (biological factor)… …but does not become clinically depressed until his or her divorce (psychological)… …and this results in problems at work, home, with friends and family (social) all of which exacerbate and maintain the problem.

Biopsychosocial responses to stressors : 

Biopsychosocial responses to stressors Biological – we encounter event, and physiological changes occur Examples? (increased heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, energy, & secretion of epinephrine and cortisol from adrenal glands) ?Pathology

Genetics – not entirely clear : 

Genetics – not entirely clear Might personality disorders simply be inherited? -From twin studies: Monozygotic (MZ): one fertilized egg, shares 100% of genes Dizygotic (DZ) twins: two fertilized eggs, share about 50% of genes Concordant: both have disorder or are disorder free Disconcordant: one has the disorder; the other does not

Biopsychosocial responses to stressors : 

Biopsychosocial responses to stressors Psychological – perception and response to stress varies from person to person (how we interpret events & our responses = cope) Individual differences – think about behaviourial and cognitive theories & concepts

One cognitive example : 

One cognitive example Cognitive interpretation - people actively negotiate between environmental demands (stressors) and personal beliefs and behaviours Cognitive appraisal

Biopsychosocial responses to stressors : 

Biopsychosocial responses to stressors Social – environmental events contribute to the onset, continuance or maintenance of stress and subsequent reactions (work, relationships, natural disasters, and so forth) Which events are present? Exacerbate or mitigate?

Benefits of using such a model? : 

Benefits of using such a model?

Limitations of this model? : 

Limitations of this model?

Psychological perspectives : 

Psychological perspectives The theoretical perspective used to understand personality is important: Some examples: Clinical psychologist Psychiatrist Social worker Nurse Mental health worker Legal aid or advocate Community support worker

Self-healing personality : 

Self-healing personality One example: Control (p. 442) Do not feel powerless in the face of external challenges

Personality : 

Personality Langer and Rodin (1976) article summary: Do not worry about the methodological strengths and weaknesses. Try to answer the questions listed on your handout

Which way does it work? : 

Which way does it work? Equifinality – “a psychological disorder may have multiple causes and result in the same disorder” Multifinality – “the same event can lead to different outcomes”