ch18_win- 1

Views:
 
Category: Entertainment
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

Slide 1: 

Preview Section 1 Everything Is Connected Section 2 Living Things Need Energy Section 3 Types of Interactions Chapter 18 Interactions of Living Things Concept Mapping

Slide 2: 

Section 1 Everything Is Connected Bellringer Think of all the things that make up a pond in the countryside. List all the parts of the pond’s ecosystem in your science journal. Are all the parts of the ecosystem living? Explain your answer. Chapter 18

Slide 3: 

Objectives Distinguish between the biotic and abiotic parts of the environment. Explain how populations and communities are related. Describe how the abiotic parts of the environment affect ecosystems. Chapter 18 Section 1 Everything Is Connected

Slide 4: 

Studying the Web of Life Chapter 18 Ecology is the study of the interactions of organisms with one another and with their environment. The Two Parts of the Environment All of the organisms that live together and interact with one another make up the biotic part of the environment. The abiotic part of the environment consists of the nonliving factors. Section 1 Everything Is Connected

Slide 5: 

Studying the Web of Life, continued Organization in the Environment At first glance, the environment may seem disorganized. However, the environment can be arranged into different levels. The five levels of the environment are shown on the next slide. Chapter 18 Section 1 Everything Is Connected

Slide 6: 

Chapter 18 Section 1 Everything Is Connected

Slide 7: 

Studying the Web of Life, continued Populations Each animal is a part of a population, or a group of individuals of the same species that live together. Communities A community consists of all of the populations of species that live and interact in an area. Chapter 18 Section 1 Everything Is Connected

Slide 8: 

Studying the Web of Life, continued Chapter 18 Section 1 Everything Is Connected

Slide 9: 

Studying the Web of Life, continued Ecosystems An ecosystem is made up of a community of organisms and the abiotic environment of the community. The Biosphere The biosphere is the part of Earth where life exists. It extends from the deepest parts of the ocean to high in the air where plant spores drift. Chapter 18 Section 1 Everything Is Connected

Slide 10: 

Section 2 Living Things Need Energy Bellringer Indian pipe is a plant that is completely white—it has no chlorophyll or chloroplasts to give it a green color. Do you think this plant could be a producer? If not, where do you think it could get the energy it needs to survive? Write your answers in your science journal. Chapter 18

Slide 11: 

Section 2 Living Things Need Energy Objectives Describe the functions of producers, consumers, and decomposers in an ecosystem. Distinguish between a food chain and a food web. Explain how energy flows through a food web. Describe how the removal of one species affects the entire food web. Chapter 18

Slide 12: 

Section 2 Living Things Need Energy The Energy Connection Producers Organisms that use sunlight directly to make food are called producers. They do this by using a process called photosynthesis. Consumers Organisms that eat other organisms are called consumers. Decomposers Organisms that get energy by breaking down dead organisms are called decomposers. Chapter 18

Slide 13: 

Section 2 Living Things Need Energy The Energy Connection, continued Chapter 18

Slide 14: 

Section 2 Living Things Need Energy The Energy Connection, continued Chapter 18

Slide 15: 

Section 2 Living Things Need Energy Comparing Consumers and Producers Chapter 18 Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concepts

Slide 16: 

Section 2 Living Things Need Energy The Energy Connection, continued Food Chains and Food Webs A food chain is a diagram that shows how energy in food flows from one organism to another. A food web is a diagram that shows the feeding relationships between organisms in an ecosystem. Chapter 18

Slide 17: 

Section 2 Living Things Need Energy The Energy Connection, continued Chapter 18

Slide 18: 

Section 2 Living Things Need Energy The Energy Connection, continued Energy Pyramids An energy pyramid is a triangular diagram that shows an ecosystem’s loss of energy, which results as energy passes through the ecosystem’s food chain. Chapter 18

Slide 19: 

Section 2 Living Things Need Energy Chapter 18

Slide 20: 

Section 2 Living Things Need Energy Wolves and the Energy Pyramid Gray Wolves and the Food Web Gray wolves were brought back to Yellowstone National Park in 1995. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service thinks the return of the wolves will restore the natural energy flow in the area and bring populations back into balance. Balance in Ecosystems All organisms in a food web are important for the health and balance of all other organisms in the food web. Chapter 18

Slide 21: 

Section 3 Types of Interactions Bellringer Make a list of predators that are also prey. Record your answer in your science journal. Chapter 18

Slide 22: 

Section 3 Types of Interactions Objectives Explain the relationship between carrying capacity and limiting factors. Describe the two types of competition. Distinguish between mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism. Give an example of coevolution. Chapter 18

Slide 23: 

Section 3 Types of Interactions Interactions with the Environment Limiting Factors A resource that is so scarce that it limits the size of a population is called a limiting factor. Carrying Capacity The largest population that an environment can support is known as the carrying capacity. Chapter 18

Slide 24: 

Limiting Factors and Carrying Capacity Chapter 18 Section 3 Types of Interactions Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept

Slide 25: 

Section 3 Types of Interactions Interactions Between Organisms Individuals and Populations Interact Populations contain individuals of a single species that interact with one another, such as a group of rabbits feeding in the same area. Communities contain interacting populations, such as a coral reef with many species of corals trying to find living space. Chapter 18

Slide 26: 

Section 3 Types of Interactions Competition Individuals and Populations Interact When two or more individuals or populations try to use the same resource, such as food, water, shelter, space, or sunlight, it is called competition. Competition can happen within a population, or between populations. Chapter 18

Slide 27: 

Section 3 Types of Interactions Predators and Prey Predators are organisms that eat all or part of another organism. Organisms that are killed and eaten by other organisms are called prey. Predator Adaptations To survive, predators must be able to catch their prey. Predators have a wide variety of methods and abilities for doing so. Chapter 18

Slide 28: 

Section 3 Types of Interactions Predators and Prey, continued Prey Adaptations Prey have their own methods and abilities to keep from being eaten. Prey are able to run away, stay in groups, or camouflage themselves. Some prey are poisonous. Camouflage One way animals avoid being eaten is by being hard to see. Blending in with the background is called camouflage. Chapter 18

Slide 29: 

Section 3 Types of Interactions Predators and Prey, continued Defensive Chemicals Some animals defend themselves with chemicals. The skunk and the bombardier beetle both spray predators with irritating chemicals. Bees, ants, and wasps inject a powerful acid into their attackers. Warning Coloration Animals that have a chemical defense need a way to warn predators that they should look elsewhere for a meal. Their chemical weapons are often advertised by warning colors. Chapter 18

Slide 30: 

Section 3 Types of Interactions Symbiosis Chapter 18 Symbiosis is a relationship in which two different organisms live in close association with each other. Mutualism is a symbiotic relationship in which both organisms benefit. Commensalism is a symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected.

Slide 31: 

Section 3 Types of Interactions Symbiosis, continued Chapter 18 Parasitism is a symbiotic association in which one organism benefits while the other is harmed. The organism that benefits is called the parasite, while the organism that is harmed is called the host.

Slide 32: 

Section 3 Types of Interactions Coevolution Chapter 18 What Is Coevolution? When a long-term change takes place in two species because of their close interactions with one another, the change is called coevolution. Coevolution and Flowers Flowers have changed over millions of years to attract pollinators. Pollinators such as bees, bats, and hummingbirds can be attracted to a flower because of its color, odor, or nectar.

Slide 33: 

Interactions of Living Things Concept Map Use the terms below to complete the concept map on the next slide. Chapter 18 Environment Consumers Ecosystem Sunlight Biosphere Herbivores Population Carnivores Communities

Slide 34: 

Chapter 18 Interactions of Living Things

Slide 35: 

Chapter 18 Interactions of Living Things