Evolution of computer

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Evolution of Computer A.P.Mohana priyaa

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Chinese invented calculating device called ABACUS Also known as “SOROBAN” perform addition and subtraction Wooden rack holding two horizontal wires with beads strung on them. Rules memorized by the user Regular arithmetic problems can be done Abacus

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NAPIER’S DEVICE John Napier a Scottish Mathematician Set of eleven animal bones later it was replaced by rod Number marked on them,they placed side by side Products and quotients of large numbers could be obtained

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SLIDE RULE Robert Bissoker invent slide rule in 1632 Popular computing device Perform all arithmetic & trigonometric function Final value can be straight away read on scale

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PASCAL’S CALCULATING MACHINE(PASCALINE) Blaise Pascal a French mathematician developed mechanical calculating machine called Pascal’s calculating machine in 1642 A.D First real desktop calculating device that could add and subtract. Construct of set of toothed wheels or gears. Each wheel having 0 through 9. Arithmetic operation performed by turning these wheels. Concept still seen in conventional electric meter and taxi meter,

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LEIBNITZ’S IMPROVED PASCAL MACHINE Pascal machine perform only addition and subtraction operation Pascal machine was improved in 1673, Introduced wheel could perform multiplication, division and square root operation.

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PUNCHED CARD MACHINE In 1801,french weaver Joseph mane jacquard invented first punched card machine, Involved in designing clothes and making patterns and design on cloth, Control textile looms , invented punched cards. Cards with holes were used to make attractive design on fiber, Presence and absence of punched hole represented two states for raisers or lowers of wrap thread

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CHARLES BABBAGE’S ENGINE. Charles Babbage (1792-1871) made a machine called difference engine. Evaluate accurate algebric expression and mathematical tasks up to 20 decimal places, This machine is also called as Babbage's difference engine, Later adopted by insurances companies for computing life tables. Modified the device in 1833. Modified device is called Analytical engine.

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If had memory unit, operation arithmetic operators. Producers the o/p In punched card format. Parts and working principle of Analytical Engine similar to today computer. Charles Babbage is called “Father of computer”

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HOLLERITHIS CARD READING MACHINE Dr.Herman Hollerith of U.S.A, working in U.S.A as census offices Developed a card reading machine and used punched cards for tabulating and calculating data, Data was being compiled and analyzed.

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MARK-I DIGITAL COMPUTER All calculating machines are invented basically mechanical machine. First electro-mechanical computer developed in 1937 by Howard aiken. Used Hollerith's punched cards and principle of computer stated by Charles Babbage Automatically perform a sequence of arithmetic operators. Huge mechanical calculator which occupied several norms. Inside several miles of electrical wires and electro mechanical relays and mechanical counter for arithmetic calculations

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FIRST ELECTRONICS COMPUTER (ABC) Dr.Jhon atanasoff and clifford berrs developed first electronic computer. It is called as ABC. Use vaccum tubes for storage , arithmetic and logical function. Special purpose used to solve simultaneous equation. It could perform 500 addition or 350 multiplication in one second.

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ELECTRONIC NUMERICAL INTEGRATOR AND CALCULATOR(ENIAC) Electronic computer, Developed by prof.presper Eckert and john mauchly. Produced in 1940 for U.S.army It used 18000 V.T 70000 resistor 10000 capacitor and 60000 switches(27 tons) Occupy 5000 s7 suet of space. Perform 300 multiplication/second Fastest machine. ENIAC was considered a significant development because the sped was first experience with ENIAC.

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ELECTRONIC DISCRETTE VARIABLE AUTOMATIC COMPUTERS(EDVAC) First electronic stored program Electronics computers developed in 1949. EDVAC different form ENIAC. 1.use of binary and electronic arithmetic operators. 2.Internal storage of instructions were written in digital forms.

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ELECTRONICS DELAY STORAGE AUTOMATIC Developed by group of scientist headed by prof.mauriee willies Using EDSAC , addition operation was accomplished in 1500 microseconds and multiplication operator in 4000 micro second

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MANCHESTER MARK-I Small experimental computer. Performs operation based on stored program. Designed Manchester university by a group of scientist headed by prof.M.H.A.Newman. Storage capacity of only 32words, each of 31 binary digits. Limited to stored data and instruction.

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UNIVERSAL AUTOMATIC COMPUTER (UNIVAC-I) Developed during 1946 to 1951 by Eckert and mauchy UNIVAC –I is first computer used for business in 1954 AD. First commercially available computer.

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MICROPROCESSOR Microprocessor chip INTEL 4004 was developed in 1969 by INTEL. perform only few instruction and very small amount of data. 1971 INTEL 8008 MP was developed. Foundation for development of personal computer(pc).

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PERSONAL COMPUTERS First pc (with MP)developed in 1974. In 1977 first successful micro computer (pc) developed by a young technician named stere wozniak. This was called the computer Apple-1

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IMB, Apple computer , & Motorola Co-operated designing a mp Caused pc 600 ser Intel designed power full chipin40’s caused Pentium(1993) Microprocessor such as a Pentium, power pc, AMD,IBM,etc are used as CPU of pc’s since 1995 POWER PC 600/ PENTIUM

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