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Chapter one : 

Chapter one Human Development The scientific study of the processes of development

Four Goals of Developmental Psychology : 

Four Goals of Developmental Psychology ● Describe  Example: When do children say their first words? ● Explain  Example: How do children learn to use language? Predict  Example: Will delayed language development affect speech? ● Modify  Example: Can therapy help speech delays?

Life Span Development : 

Life Span Development Developmental processes: change and stability Two kinds of change: Quantitative: change in number/amount (growth, height) Qualitative: change in kind, structure, organization

Two Types ofDevelopmental Change : 

Two Types ofDevelopmental Change Qualitative  Structure or Organization  Often difficult to anticipate Quantitative  Number or Amount Examples: Height  Weight  Size of Vocabulary Example:  Changing from nonverbal to verbal communication

Life Span Development : 

Life Span Development Physical development: change and stability in growth of the body and brain, sensory capacities, motor skills, and health   Cognitive development: change and stability in mental abilities, learning, attention, memory, language, reasoning, creativity   Psychosocial development: change and stability in emotions, personality, social relationships

Life Span Development : 

Life Span Development Influences on development: normative: most people, similarities individual differences: specific differences Heredity & Environment Heredity: inborn traits or characteristics inherited from the parents Environment: inner and outer environment

Life Span Development : 

Life Span Development Maturation: Unfolding of a natural sequence of physical changes and behavior patterns, mastery of skills, ability to learn.   Culture & Ethnicity Culture is the society or group’s total way of life Ethnic: people united by a distinct culture, ancestry, religion, language, or national origin

Slide 8: 

Timing of Influences: Critical or Sensitive Periods Lorenz: hatched ducklings Imprinting: automatic and irreversible; instinctive bonding with mother; a predisposition to learning

Slide 9: 

Critical Period: specific time when a given event (or absence) has specific impact on development. Not absolutely fixed.   Plasticity: ability to modify   Sensitive Periods: especially responsive to specific type of experience

Slide 10: 

The Effects of Early Experience Questions to consider: How important are early experiences and how much of an effect do they have on a person’s later life? Are there critical periods during which a child must be exposed to certain stimulations or experiences (or forever be disadvantaged)? How “plastic” is the child? That is, how can a child take and still bounce back? How much can a child endure before his/her later development will be permanently impaired?

Slide 11: 

Without feedback from the environment (that is, without experience) how can further development occur?   A child raised in a deprived environment with inadequate stimulation and feedback might fail to learn. The damage to a child is significant when love and attention are absent.

Slide 12: 

Critical & Sensitive Periods Critical and sensitive periods are both times when the organism is biologically primed to most benefit from a particular experience.   Sensitive Periods: adverse effects caused by missing a sensitive period may be overcome at a later time, although with great difficulty.

Slide 13: 

Critical Periods: adverse effects caused by missing a critical period are permanent.   The only clearly demonstrated critical period in human beings involves early stimulation of certain neural and body cells. Without such stimulation, these cells atrophy and die (e.g., visual neurons must have light during their early development or they will die.   Depth perception may occur as well.

Slide 14: 

The first 5 to 6 years of childhood may be a critical period for the development of the brain. Even when a part of the brain is damaged, if damage occurs before age 5/6, the brain may compensate and take over the functions. After age six, highly unlikely.

Slide 15: 

Other ways a child may suffer permanent disability by early childhood: occurrence of irreparable physical damage upon which later development will depend a critical period that passes without the child’s obtaining the necessary experience or stimulation a situation where the child is kept by their culture or environment from ever obtaining the learning necessary for proper development.

Slide 16: 

Learning and Early Experience Sometimes a child misses an important learning experience because the environment fails to provide it. If the child eventually receives the necessary experiences they may be able to recover.

Baltes’s Life Span Approach: 6 Key Principles : 

Baltes’s Life Span Approach: 6 Key Principles 1. Development is lifelong  Change & adaptation occur throughout life 2. Development involves both gain & loss  Ex: Gaining vocabulary, but losing ability to acquire language 3. Biological & cultural influences shift over time 4. Development involves changing allocation of resources  Resources used for growth, maintenance, & recovery 5. Development shows plasticity  Ex: Memory can be improved with practice 6. Development is influenced by historical and cultural context.

Theory & Reseach : 

Theory & Reseach Two models: Mechanistic: locke Organismic: Rousseau

Development is Contextual : 

Development is Contextual The Life-Span Perspective

Processes in Development : 

Processes in Development The Nature of Development Fig. 1.3

Views of Child Development : 

Views of Child Development The Life-Span Perspective

Slide 22: 

Development continuous or stages Continuous: Mechanist theorists; allows prediction of earlier behaviors from later ones; quantitative changes (frequency of response)   Stages: Organismic theorists; emphasis qualitative changes; stages, building on previous problems and developments. Current theorists: Active versus passive development People change their world as it also changes them

Developmental Issues : 

Developmental Issues The Nature of Development

Continuity and Discontinuity in Development : 

Continuity and Discontinuity in Development The Nature of Development Fig. 1.7

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