GLOBAL AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SYSTEMS

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By: SOMASSOUNDIRAVELOU (126 month(s) ago)

Im Dr.S.ANANDKUMAR, serving as an Associate Professor of Agricultural Extension in Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru College of Agriculture & Research Institute in Karaikal, one of the Districts of Union Territory of Pudhucherry. I am handing a course “Agricultural Research, Research Ethics & Rural Development Programmes”for 2020-2011 batch of Post Graduate Students here. Second lecture in this course is on global agricultural research system. I find this power point presentation very useful for the students undergoing this course. Hence, I may be permitted to download this, please.

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GLOBAL AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SYSTEMS : 

GLOBAL AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SYSTEMS A.K. CHHABRA Professor Department of Plant Breeding CCSHAU, Hisar DISCLAIMER: Copyright of some of the figures used from internet and different web sites is duly acknowledged. The copyright stands with its original developer. The information has been gathered here for educational purpose and not for any kind of commercial purpose.

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In addition to the national crop improvement programmes, there are sixteen international institutes concerned with improving the agricultural production. Ten of these institutes are directly or indirectly involved in crop improvement work These institutes supplement the national crop improvement efforts.

Location in world : 

Location in world The international institutes are scattered around the world and are situated in tropical countries.

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The tropical countries constitute the developing countries or the ‘third world’. The agriculture in these countries is not well developed and crop improvement work is generally not highly advanced.

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The main objective of these institutes is to increase agricultural production of tropical countries through applied research coupled with extension and educational activities. The functioning of these institutes is supported and supervised by the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).

CGIAR : 

CGIAR The CGIAR was established in 1971 Established by the joint efforts of FAO and UNDP. The CGIAR is financially supported by sponsors, governments, development banks, foundations and some other sources. At present it financially supports and supervises all the 16 institues. Periodically, CGIAR assesses the progress and the programmes of these institutes with the help of internationally recognized experts in the field of agriculture.

Research Centers Under the control and co‑ordination of CGIAR: : 

Research Centers Under the control and co‑ordination of CGIAR: CIAT ‑ Centro Internacional de Agrictiltura Tropical, Palmira (Colombia) –1967. CI FOR ‑Center for International Forestry Research CIMMYT ‑ Centro Internacional de Meioramiento de Maiz y Trigo, Mexico -1966 CIP ‑ Centro Internacional de la Papa, Lima (Peru)-1971 CGPRT – Course Grain Pulse Root Tuber Centre, Bogar (Indonesia) ICARDA ‑ International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, Alleppo (Syria) –1976. ICRISAT ‑ International Crops Research Institute for the Semi‑Arid Tropics, Hyderabad (India) –1972. IFPRI ‑ International Food Policy Research Institute, USA. IITA ‑ International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan (Nigeria) - 1968 ICGEB – International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Trieste (Italy) and New Delhi (India) ILRI ‑ International Livestock Research Institute, Addis Ababa (Euthopia) –1974. IPGRI ‑ International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome (Italy) –1974. IRRI ‑ International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Manila (Phillipines) –1960. ILRAD – International Laboratory for Research on Animal Diseases, Nairobi (Kenya) – 1973 ISNAR – International Service for National Agriculture Research, Hage (Netherlands) WARDA – West African Rice Development Association, Monrovia - 1971 IWMI ‑ International Water Management Institute World Agro-forestry Centre OCRAF World Fish Center

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CGIAR Centres

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CIAT ‑ Centro Internacional de Agrictiltura Tropical, Palmira (Colombia) –1967.

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Link-donors Link-projects

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Link

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CI FOR ‑Center for International Forestry Research

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International Institute of Tropical Agriculture

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WARDA Now called:

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The loss of biodiversity poses a serious threat to agriculture and the livelihoods of millions of people. Conserving biodiversity and using it wisely is a global imperative. Biodiversity provides the foundation for our agricultural systems. It provides the sources of traits to improve yield, quality, resistance to pests and diseases and adapt to changing environmental conditions, such as global warming. Biodiversity is also a direct source of food for many people and is a essential part of our life support system. Without it our ecosystems, the planet's entire biosphere, cannot function

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Functions of the International Institutes To increase the agricultural production in the tropics. To achieve this, they engage in applied agricultural research and extension activities. These activities of the institutes may be summarized as under: Collection and conservation of germplasm of the concerned crops and their relatives Genetic improvement of the crops concerned to develop high yielding and disease resistant lines better suited to the various environments. To conduct research on farming systems for an efficient use of the available resources. To determine the appropriate technology suitable for the needs and the resources of the region. The emphasis is to develop improved practices from the existing ones so that the local farmers are able to adopt the new improved technology with as little difficulty and expenditure as possible. Extension activities to popularize the new technology so that the cultivator is able to adopt them.

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LAYOUT OF AN INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE GREEN HOUSES EXPERIMENTAL FIELDS RADIO ISOTOPE LABORATORY PROTEIN LABORATORY TISSUE CULTURE LABORATORY GENOMIC LAB ELECTRON MICROSCOPY LAB AGROMETEROLOGY LAB TRAINING CENTRE OFFICE STAFF AND FIELD LABS LIBRARY FACILITIES RECREATION CAFE CANTEENS ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICES

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METHODOLOGIES ADOPTED TO GENERATE NEW MATERIAL Many of these institutes, e.g., IRRI, ICRISAT, CIMMYT etc., have the responsibility for breeding crop varieties for several tropical countries. The soil, climate, agricultural practices, prevalent diseases and consumer preferences would vary to a great deal from one country to another, and often within a single country. The development of varieties suited to such varied conditions poses a problem, which the breeders had never faced before. The breeders have attempted to solve this problem in the following manner. The first step consists of the identification of possible environments for which the varieties have to be developed. In each environment, a location is selected for the evaluation of breeding materials and varieties The second step involves making of a large number of crosses between parents with very wide genetic base. This is done at a very large scale. It is hoped that segregating materials from promising crosses would perform well in one or the other environment. CROSSES Finally, the segregating materials from the promising crosses are tested in the various environments at different locations. A number of lines suited to those particular conditions are identified and selected. SEGREGATING MATERIAL GROWN AND SELECTED

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Recent outstanding achievements of global agricultural research system

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QPM-Quality Protein Maize Quality Protein Maize (QPM) varieties have been released in 25 countries, and are grown on more than 600,000 hectares This book documents the discovery, genetics, breeding, chemistry, nutrition, milling, and processing of a new, superior quality maize. First discovered in 1963 and improved by breeders in the early 1980's, Quality Protein Maize promises greatly improved nutritional value and cost savings foe everything from infant formula to corn chips and animal feed. The impact of this breakthrough will be felt throughout the food industry and has great promise in the developing world.

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TILAPIA Characteristics Tilapia is a hardy, prolific, fast-growing tropical fish native to Israel, where it has been farmed for about 2,500 years. It requires water temperatures from 76 to 84 degrees Fahrenheit. Currently, tilapia are produced in outdoor ponds and indoor systems. They are prolific breeders and were considered a national pest in Indonesia until the citizens began using them as a food source. Tilapia production in outside ponds is strictly regulated in the southern United States for fear that some fish may escape from the farm ponds and encroach on native sport fishing populations. A GIFT strain of tilapia has been selectively bred which shows an approximate 70% gain in growth rate

Reducing pesticide use : 

Reducing pesticide use Reducing pesticide use in developing countries by promoting integrated pest management and biological control methods

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Training over 75,000 developing country scientists and researchers

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New Rices for Africa (NERICAs) are transforming agriculture in the West Africa region. In 2003 it is estimated that NERICAs were planted on 23,000 hectares, and their use is spreading across Africa. In particular, 6,000 hectares were planted in Uganda. In Guinea alone, NERICAs have saved an estimated $13 million in rice import bills

….Achievements : 

….Achievements Adoption of low-till farming practices in Asia on 1.2 million hectares across the Indo-Gangetic plains, boosting farm incomes and productivity Enabling African producers to access international pigeonpea markets Over 45 bean varieties derived from CGIAR germplasm have been released across Latin America Improved forages, developed by CGIAR researchers and partners, are grown on over 100 million hectares in Latin America

Thanks : 

Thanks

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