E Emergency Planning Roohullah Shabon

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1 EMERGENCY PLANNING Presented by: Dr R Shabon

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2 600 million children live on less than $1 a day 10 million children under age 5 die every year of preventable causes; 4 million in their first month of life 80 million girls and 40 million boys are not in school 13 million children are AIDS orphans 20 million children have been injured, killed or displaced from their homes by war In the U.S., one out of six children live in poverty Facts and Realities

Emergency Strategy 2003 : 

3 Emergency Strategy 2003 Trends in humanitarian crises 1964 - 1999 The graphs shows a steady increase over the last 35 years in the number of people affected by conflict & natural disasters. TRENDS

Complex Humanitarian Emergency : 

4 Complex Humanitarian Emergency High levels of violence against civilians Mixed cultures, minorities at risk of genocide Catastrophic public health emergencies Host nation’s resources overwhelmed Vulnerable groups even more at risk Disregard for human rights

Complex Humanitarian EmergencyDisaster : 

5 Complex Humanitarian EmergencyDisaster Complex Emergencies: “Relatively acute situations that affect large civilian populations and usually involve a combination of war or civil strife, food shortages and population displacement that results in significant excess mortality.”

The Humanitarian Imperative : 

6 The Humanitarian Imperative Save Lives and Relieve Suffering Build Local and National Capacity Sustainable Development Protect Those In Danger Women Children Elderly Advocate For The Oppressed

?And other initial considerations : 

7 ?And other initial considerations Language and communication Security Performing an assessment Who is who? The Humanitarian Response Forming a team Logistics and communications Am I doing the right thing here? What to pack Is this going to be fun?

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What is an emergency Plan : 

9 What is an emergency Plan An Emergency Plan can be defined as an agreed set of arrangements for responding to, and recovering from emergencies, involving the description of responsibilities, management structures, strategies and resources.

Why Develop Plans ? : 

10 Why Develop Plans ? Some people do not believe planning is necessary and may argue that: Everybody knows what to do; Emergencies are unpredictable, and impossible to plan for; People don’t follow plans in emergencies The development of emergency plan will worry the public. Let’s Consider these arguments one by one

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11 Some Arguments: Everybody knows what to do Emergencies are unpredictable, and therefore you can’t plan for them People don’t follow plans in emergencies The development of emergency plans will unduly worry the public

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Principles of Emergency Planning : 

13 Principles of Emergency Planning Is a continuous process; Attempts to reduce the unknowns in a problematical situation; Should be based on what is likely to happen; Must be based on knowledge; Should focus on principles;

Principles of Emergency Planning : 

14 Principles of Emergency Planning Should be simple to avoid confusion; Should be flexible enough to adopt to any situation; Can only define the starting point for response and recovery operations; Should allow for the development of emergencies strategies.

The Prerequisites for Planning are: : 

15 The Prerequisites for Planning are: A recognition that hazards and vulnerability exits, and that emergencies can occur; An awareness by the community, government and decision makers of the need to pan and of the benefits of planning;

The Prerequisites for Planning are: : 

16 The Prerequisites for Planning are: Implementation of the plan is guaranteed by appropriate legislation Designation of an organization responsible for coordinating both planning and emergency response and recovery in the event of an emergency

The Planning Process will Produce: : 

17 The Planning Process will Produce: An understanding of organizational responsibilities in response and recovery; Strengthening of emergency management networks; Improved community participation and awareness; Effective response and recovery strategies and systems; A simple and flexible written plan

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18 Emergency Planning does not require the creation of a new emergency management organization- it utilizes the abilities and resources of existing organizations to create an effective and efficient system

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19 They are most often found to be deficient in people’s diets. Their deficiency lead to grave health, social and economic consequences; These two deficiencies are iron deficiency, vitamin A deficiency.

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Information to Collect During a Disaster Aassessment of a Disaster Site May Include: : 

21 Information to Collect During a Disaster Aassessment of a Disaster Site May Include: Geographic extent of disaster’s impact; Population at risk or affected Presence of continuing hazards Injuries and deaths Availability of shelter Access to drinkable water Nutritional status of affected population Current level of sanitation Status of health care infrastructure Level of communication network Status of transportation system Incidence of communicable diseases

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Some criteria for selecting members of a planning group are as follows. : 

24 Some criteria for selecting members of a planning group are as follows. Aware of the emergency management roles of their organization ?? Actively involved in either preparedness, response or recovery?? Of sufficient seniority to commit their organization to planning group decision?? Capable of contributing to the planning group’s work?? Is this person

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26 Identifying a hazard or hazardous situation; Listing potential problems Determining causes Developing preventative strategies Developing response and recover strategies, and trigger events for these strategies.

How to do a Potential Problem Analysis : 

27 How to do a Potential Problem Analysis Fire in a particular multistory hospital can be used as an example of a potential problem analysis. A vulnerability assessment on such a hospital would provide many of the potential problems that can be explored. Some potential problems with a hospital that may be derived by a planning group include:

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28 Smoke causing visibility problems; Toxic smoke and fumes causing lung damage to occupants; People trapped by smoke and flames Death due to smoke and flames; Fire damage to property; Water damage to equipment from sprinklers systems; Threat of fire to adjacent buildings.

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29 Next, we can consider preventive strategies for the smoke problems. Some examples are: Reduce quantity of synthetic furnishings in the building (usually not a cost-effective strategy but still worth considering); Ensure appropriate housekeeping to reduce the amount of combustible material available (in essence, material that is not of immediate use in a given room should be stored in dedicated areas and garbage should be removed regularly);

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30 Develop systems for reducing air flow to a fire (e.g.. Automatic or manual shut-off of air conditioning, closing of doors, windows , etc.) Educate building occupiers of the dangers of smoke and the best means to avoid it. (e.g.. Staying close to the floor when leaving a building); Train building occupiers in the use of fire extinguishers.

Potential Problem Analysis TableHazard : 

31 Potential Problem Analysis TableHazard Potential Cause preventive strategies Response & recovery Trigger problem strategies

Some Possible Response and Recovery Strategies include: : 

32 Some Possible Response and Recovery Strategies include: Shut off air conditioning as soon as fire is discovered (this may reduce the amount of oxygen that reaches the fire, and may reduce the amount of smoke produced); Close all doors and windows; Leave building in an organized manner; Use appropriate fire extinguishers for a given fire.

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How to do a Resource Analysis ?? : 

34 How to do a Resource Analysis ?? In a resource analysis, the following questions are asked in the following order: What are the possible or proposed strategies? What resources are required What resources are available Who is responsible of this resource What is the difference between the requirements and availability? If the is a shortfall , who is responsible for correcting it?

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35 What resources are required for our proposed strategies? What is currently available? What is the difference between resource requirements and availability? Who is responsible for correcting any difference between requirements and availability? Is is cost-effective (that is, is the expenditure of money in this area really worthwhile?

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36 Resource analysis Table Strategies Resources Resources Available Difference Responsible Required

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38 Have we described who performed each task that is required? Have we described the roles and responsibilities of each dept/person Do members of each dept know the specific tasks that must be performed by their team? Where do we get the information to adequately define and describe roles and responsibilities? Who is primary (or lead) dept for a given type of emergency, and who are the secondary (or support) sector/dept?

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Some Management Concepts in Emergency Management : 

40 Some Management Concepts in Emergency Management Organization Structure . Complexity Centralization Formalizations.

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Developing Strategies & Systems : 

42 Developing Strategies & Systems Strategies and systems that are commonly required for response and recover include those for the six sectors Communications; Search and rescue; Health and medical; Social welfare; Transport and lifelines; Police and investigations

As well as : : 

43 As well as : Alerting Command, control and coordination; Information management; Resource management; Evacuation; Hazardous materials;

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44 Alerting consists of a number of response phases, including: Alert- the period when it is believed that resource may be required which enables an increased level of preparedness; Standby- the period normally following an alert when the operation dept believes hat deployment of resource is imminent- personnel are placed on standby to respond immediately; Alerting

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45 All-out the command to deploy resources; Stand-down- the period when the operation dept has declared that the emergency is controlled and that resources may be recalled Alerting

In order to implement these phases, there needs to be: : 

46 In order to implement these phases, there needs to be: A protocol of which operation to alert for which emergencies and what tasks; A contact list for all relevant agencies A description of the type of information that should be supplied in the various phases of altering.

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47 Command, control and coordination concerns the management of people and resources during response and recovery operations. This is comprised of : Information management Resource management Decision- making Problem - solving Reporting to higher levels of authority. Command, Control & Coordination

Information Management : 

48 Information Management Information management concerns the gathering, handling, use and dissemination of information related to an emergency. Tasks and systems include: Warning systems Disaster assessment Management of operational information Public information

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49 Organizations responsible for emergency management should develop early warning systems for their own use and the use of others. These early warning systems could cover the following areas: Outbreaks of disaster and epidemics Shortage of food and water Warning Systems

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50 Movement of population Technological and industrial hazards Social and political unrest Economic crises War and insurgencies Warning Systems

Evolving objectives of assessment : 

51 Evolving objectives of assessment Determine action being taken by community to protect lives & facilities from expected emergency activate the implementation of assessment confirm the reported emergency & estimate overall magnitude of the harm identify, characterize & quantify ‘populations at risk’ help to define & prioritize the actions & resources needed to reduce immediate risks Warning Emergency

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52 Identify local response capacity, including organizational, medical & logistic resources. Help anticipate future serious problems Help manage & control the immediate response identify the priorities of the affected community identify the policies of the government with regard to recovery estimate the additional support required from provincial, national, and international sources for recovery Emergency Short Term Recovery

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53 Monitor the outcome & effectiveness of recovery strategy. Determine the damage to economically significant resources and the implications for development policy. Assess the impact of the emergency on current development programmes identify new development opportunities created by the emergency. long Term Recovery Short Term Recovery

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