LFA and RBM Roohullah Shabon

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LFA/Result Frame Work : 

LFA/Result Frame Work Dr R Shabon

Session objectivesA better understanding of what we means by “results,” particularly related to institutional strengtheningClarity on how the Agency defines objectives, indicators and activitiesA small contribution to increasing the soundness of NGO program design : 

Session objectivesA better understanding of what we means by “results,” particularly related to institutional strengtheningClarity on how the Agency defines objectives, indicators and activitiesA small contribution to increasing the soundness of NGO program design

Noted problems… : 

4 Noted problems… With objectives — Set too low, output oriented Often don’t describe change Technical objectives are pretty good, but capacity building and management aren’t With indicators — Aren’t a direct “match”(nor reasonable proxy) of theobjective

Definitions : 

Definitions Goal (the higher order objective to which project/program contributes) - Aim Purpose (the effect or impact of the project/program) - Development objective - General objective Component objective - Specific objective - Outcome

Definitions continued : 

Definitions continued Outputs (what the project will deliver) - Results Activities (what must be undertaken to accomplish the outputs) Inputs (when resources are needed)

Results flow chart : 

Results flow chart Planning Causality Inputs Processes Activities Outputs Objectives Outcomes Results

Slide 12: 

Inputs Processes Activities Outputs Objectives Outcomes Results Any action, funded or unfunded, undertaken to achieve a program result Assignments, tasks, stuff we do to achieve our objectives! For example, training for NGO counterparts in institutional capacity assessment

Slide 14: 

Inputs Processes Activities Outputs Objectives Outcomes Results Output level objectives are those which result from activities Immediate goods and services In most instances don’t represent “future state” change Usually not your BHR/PVC Planning Matrix objectives Frequently “bean counting” Useful for program management purposes And because audits hold you accountable for the beans

Slide 16: 

Inputs Processes Activities Outputs Objectives Outcomes Results Anything that is clearly intended tobe achieved Intermediate effects Often occur at several levels in a series of cause and effect relationships Effects on the target population/communitys

Slide 17: 

Results Flow Chart Update Activity Training for NGO counterparts in RA Outputs NGO counterparts competent in ICA Objectives

Slide 18: 

Results Flow Chart Update Activity Training for NGO counterparts in Rapid Assessment (RA) Outputs NGO counterparts competent in RA Objectives Activity Technical assistance to NGO counterparts in administering and interpreting RA Outcome Increased NGO counterparts capability to measure community resources

Slide 20: 

Inputs Processes Activities Outputs Objectives Outcomes Results Results and outcomes are… Changes in the condition of a community orchanges in the host country condition that affect a community Whether an objective is a result or outcome depends on where in the chain of results it is Results describe the long-term impact on your communities Outcomes describe the immediate effects on your communities Performance accountability (i.e., for outcomes, results, or both) depends on your resources, program duration, span of influence over partners and the “gap” between the real and the ideal

Slide 22: 

Outputs Outcomes Results Objectives Results Flow Chart Chain of Objectives: Goals Goals are at the highest level and are not measured in the program context For example, reducing morbidity and mortality in the general population are usually considered to be at the goal level Sustainable service delivery (post project activities) will assist local people to continue to meet objectives and move toward goal attainment Activities Goals

Slide 23: 

Results Flow Chart Update Activity Training for NGO counterparts in RA Outputs NGO counterparts competent in RA Objectives Activity Technical assistance to NGO counterparts in administering and interpreting RA in community level Outcome Increased NGO counterparts capability to measure community level RA capacity Result NGO counterparts direct changes in community level institutional capacity to improve community based health management

Slide 24: 

Inputs Processes Activities Outputs Objectives Outcomes Results Your Planning Matrix objectives should bethe highest order objectives for which youcan be held accountable In your program’s manageable interest They should… Be specific Clearly state the type of change expected Be clear about who and what is changing Individuals, groups, organizations Be time-bound and measurable

Results flow chart : 

Results flow chart Indicators… Signal the achievement of the objective Evidence that the objective has been achieved Answer the question, “How will we know achievement when we see it?”

Selecting Indicators : 

Selecting Indicators Key indicator selection to intended use Consistent with requirements of management Use standard criteria Some technical areas meet most of these criteria easily — others have a rough time

High Quality Performance Indicators are... : 

High Quality Performance Indicators are... Direct Objective Adequate tomeasure the result Practical

Slide 32: 

32 Indicators are straightforward and valid measures of the objective or result If direct indicators are not feasible, use credible proxy measures

Objective indicators : 

Unambiguous about  what is being measured  what data are being collected Objective indicators Unidimensional Quantitative (where possible) Consistent over time

Adequate indicators : 

Sensitive to change Disaggregated (when required) Adequate coverage of the result Adequate indicators A performance indicator should adequately measure the result

Practicality : 

38 Practicality Are the data associated with the indicator practical? Ask whether... Quality data are currently available The data can be collected on a regular and timely basis Primary data collection, when necessary, is feasible and cost-effective

Results flow chart : 

Results flow chart Indicators

Slide 41: 

# or % of NGO counterparts applying ICA to their organization # of NGO counterparts’ own institutional development initiatives undertaken resulting from RA # of community level institutional capacity assessments conducted by counterpart NGOs # of NGO counterpart targeted communities that_____? Results Flow Chart Update

Final thoughts: shared values for common-sense performance measurement : 

Final thoughts: shared values for common-sense performance measurement More indicators aren’t necessarily better; you need enough information to get an honest measurement Indicators are only as good as the results they measure; indicators are only meaningful to the extent they measure our results Data quality presumes indicator quality Be aware of the limitations (regarding validity, reliability, and timeliness) of your data Performance monitoring is only one source of performance information; evaluation, observation, and experience complete the performancepicture Use data for management—it’s the main reason we measure performance Take a practical approach—get adequate information that is reasonably current at a reasonable cost Indicators should make sense to a development professional, but be understandable to interested persons Choose the “best” indicators and data among the practical alternatives; the development setting limits what we measure, and how we can measure it Meaningful qualitative indicators are usually okay and sometimes preferable

Projects/programs as : 

Projects/programs as Input Input Input Input Output Output Output Processes

Logical Hierarchy : 

Logical Hierarchy Impact Outcomes Outputs Processes Inputs Health status e.g. incidence of TB, infant mortality, maternal mortality Behaviors changed/coverage e.g. mothers using ORS, toilets used, antenatal attendance Staff trained, education sessions conducted, mobile clinics held, supervisory clinics conducted Variety of activities, and the types of interactions between participants and stakeholders Staff, funds, vehicles, information, guidelines, facilities built, equipment

Logical Hierarchy andProject Achievements : 

Logical Hierarchy andProject Achievements 2 vehicles per district provided reduce maternal mortality increase attendance in antenatal clinic 35 facilities built knowledge in emergency obstetric care improved 400 manuals produced increase contraceptive prevalence

The Logical Framework : 

The Logical Framework Impact Outcomes Outputs Processes Inputs Goal Purpose Component Objectives/Outputs Activities Inputs

The Hierarchy and the Logframe : 

The Hierarchy and the Logframe GOAL Purpose Component Objective 1 Component Objective 2 Output Output Output Output Output Output Activities 1. 2. 3. 4. Activities 1. 2. 3. 4. Activities 1. 2. 3. 4. Activities 1. 2. 3. 4. Activities 1. 2. 3. 4. Activities 1. 2. 3. 4.

Your Turn to Think : 

Your Turn to Think Reduce TB mortality Set up operational village health posts Improve the quality of family planning services A reference laboratory in the district established Increase ANC attendance of pregnant women at least twice during pregnancy

And Think . . . : 

And Think . . . TBA’s in the village trained Supervised deliveries Reduce the incidence of HIV Health facilities regularly supervised Improve care-seeking behavior of mothers in cases of fast breathing children Improve completion rate in TB treatment

And Think . . . : 

And Think . . . Safe potable water supply available at rural health center Manage the project efficient and effectively Introduce screening of sex workers for STD and HIV Improve the health of ethnic minorities

Characteristics of Good Objectives : 

Characteristics of Good Objectives Specific Measurable(quantitatively and qualitatively) Attributable (to goal and purpose) Realistic Time-framed

Techniques in Writing Good Objectives : 

Techniques in Writing Good Objectives Use Strong Verbs (action-oriented/ behavioral) Choose the best objective:  - to increase use of educational materials - to promote greater use of educational materials

Techniques . . . : 

Techniques . . . Don’t use verbs that are activities - objectives are about what we achieve, not do Which objective is best?  - Midwives trained in FP counselling - Conduct 3-week FP training workshops in all districts

Techniques . . . : 

Techniques . . . State only one result What is wrong with these objectives?  - to establish ANC classes for pregnant women in village health posts and provide outreach transportation services so that women can attend - improve the quality of family planning services by training midwives in counselling

Techniques . . . : 

Techniques . . . Make sure the objectives at one level are not sub-objectives of each other What is wrong with this set of objectives? Objective 1: Improve immunization coverage of children Objective 2: Operational refrigerators available at health posts Objective 3: Workers in EPI trained in the health facilities

Techniques . . . : 

Techniques . . . Ensure objectives at a certain level in the hierarchy are of a similar level of specificality What is wrong with this set of objectives? Component objective 1: To improve quality of TB control services Component objective 2: Safe and potable water source available in the village Component objective 3: Reduce maternal mortality

Techniques in Writing Good Output Statements : 

Techniques in Writing Good Output Statements They should be stated in terms of quality It must be clear that certain outputs are prerequisites for others (ordering) They must clearly relate to the component objective, and are necessary for its achievement They must be feasible with resource available (inputs)

Example of Output Statements : 

Example of Output Statements Midwives are trained on gender awareness Village health units are constructed Safe Motherhood health education manual available

Keeping the Big Picture in View : 

Keeping the Big Picture in View Work as a Team in the First round to set goal, purpose, and objectives Work individually on outputs Work as a Team to review/confirm outputs Work individually on activities Work as a Team to review/confirm activities

First step in RBM is with Stakeholder participation and involvement to set mutual goals and targets in the communities we work in. : 

First step in RBM is with Stakeholder participation and involvement to set mutual goals and targets in the communities we work in.

Stakeholder participation should include: : 

Stakeholder participation should include: Program/project design and planning Identifying, defining and measuring results Comprehensive information collection with risk assessment Establish clear role and responsibilities between RTP and partner organization Create ownership and commitment from partner organizations and beneficiaries Clear responsibility for data collection, analysis and reporting will improve our performance measure and evaluation All stakeholders provide input and consensus on results targets should be achieved

From the inputs we have we create activities which logically will lead to some kind of results: : 

From the inputs we have we create activities which logically will lead to some kind of results:

Results are measured in Outputs, Outcomes and Impacts (and finally I can understand the difference!) : 

Results are measured in Outputs, Outcomes and Impacts (and finally I can understand the difference!)

Using the RBM we need to create a performance Framework which leads us to Performance Measurement and Evaluation : 

Using the RBM we need to create a performance Framework which leads us to Performance Measurement and Evaluation We will ask these questions: Why are we doing this program/project What results do we expect to achieve for the resources being invested? Who will the program/project reach out too in terms of beneficiaries Who would the program/project best be implemented?

Performance framework has many factors which need to be completed with our stakeholders : 

Performance framework has many factors which need to be completed with our stakeholders

This is important as we will use performance information for management decision making : 

This is important as we will use performance information for management decision making

Measurements of our results : 

Measurements of our results ResultsResult. A result is a describable or measurable change in state that is derived from a cause and effect relationship. Developmental result. The output, outcome and impact of an investment in a developing country. Operational result. The administrative and management product achieved within the Organization. Input. The resources required, including money, time or effort, to produce a result. Results chain. Generally seen to correspond to the output, purpose and goal levels of a logical framework analysis (LFA) Output. The immediate, visible, concrete and tangible consequences of program/project inputs. Outcome. Result at the LFA purpose level, constituting the short-term effect of the program/project. This is generally the level where the beneficiaries or end-users take ownership of the program/project. Impact. Broader, higher level, long-term effect or consequence linked to the goal or vision.

This is one example of results in a performance framework : 

This is one example of results in a performance framework

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