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Mughal Empire : 

Mughal Empire Overview of India’s Past

Mughal Empire : 

Mughal Empire Descendent of Ghegis Khan established the Mughal Empire in India Mughal Empire lasted from 1526-mid-1700’s Great rulers included Babur, Akbar, Salim, who took the title of Jahangir

Babur or Babar : 

Babur or Babar Founded the Mughal dynasty Took power by force Overthrow the Sultan of Delhi Sunni Muslim

Akbar : 

Akbar Took power in 1556 at the age of 13 Ruled until 1605 Greatest and most talented Mughal monarch Religious tolerance Rajputs helped rule-married a Rajput princess Hindus were given high government jobs Removed special taxes that Hindus paid to Muslim rulers Created new religion called Din Ilahi (Divine Faith) Combination of Islam, Christianity, Hinduism, & other faiths

Salim : 

Salim Took the title of Jahingir Married a strong princess, Nur Jahan, who made up for Jahingir’s shortcomings as an emperor His wife was the strongest female ruler in India history prior to modern times First of a series of rulers who will weaken Mughal dynasty

Creation of the Taj Mahal : 

Creation of the Taj Mahal Shah Jahan built the Taj Mahal as a tomb for his beloved wife, Mumtaz Mahal Tomb as to be “as beautiful as she was beautiful” Took 22 years and 20,000 workers to build Made of marble, sapphires, bloodstones, rubies, and lapis lazuli

End of religious tolerance : 

End of religious tolerance Shah Jahan tried to turn his empire into an Islamic state Ordered the destruction of Hindu temples, taxed non-Muslims more heavily than Muslims, removed Hindus from high gov’t offices Mughal empire reached its peak, but the religious intolerance weakened the gov’t

Social classes : 

Social classes Great discrepancy between the wealth of the monarchs and the conditions of the poor Poor lived in mud huts with thatched roofs and had relatively no furniture During famines, people abandoned towns and the towns became overgrown often by jungle vegetation and animals Foundations for India’s caste system are reinforced during this period

India’s caste system : 

India’s caste system Caste system was created by Hindu religion Brahmans-priests and upper class Kshatriyas-warrior class Vaishya Shudra-lowest class Outcasts-do not fit into any caste and are shunned

Impact of Muslim faith on Hinduism : 

Impact of Muslim faith on Hinduism Hindus were affected by the Muslims Hindu dress became the same as Muslim Hindu women began to veil their faces Northern India adopted the purdah (keeping women in seclusion) Creation of the Sikhs: New religious order that combined Islam and Hinduism founded by Nanak

Sikhs : 

Sikhs Religious leaders were known as gurus Persecuted by Mughal rulers Become a community of soldiers to protect themselves Men take last name of Singh (lion) Women took the last name of Kaur (lioness) Set up an independent military state in northern India

Sikh Architecture : 

Sikh Architecture

Europeans arrive : 

Europeans arrive 1498: Vasco deGama arrives in Calicut Mughal emperors did not see the arrival of Europeans as a threat to their existence The key to controlling Indian trade was controlling the seas around India Mughal navy was too weak to control the seas Portuguese dominated trade with India during 1500’s

Mughals lose power to the Europeans : 

Mughals lose power to the Europeans By mid-1700’s Mughal empire was too weak to survive English and French traders played rival princes off of each other British form the British East India Company and the French form their own British and French rule different regions by forming alliances with local officials and the independent rajas

East India Trade Companies : 

East India Trade Companies Both the British and French trade companies organized an army of sepoys Sepoys: Indian troops Sepoy regiments kept order in areas controlled by the companies

Slide 20: 

East India Trade Companies Both the British and French trade companies organized an army of sepoys Sepoys: Indian troops Sepoy regiments kept order in areas controlled by the companies

Great Britain takes control of India : 

Great Britain takes control of India British East India Company (under the direction of Robert Clive) used sepoys and British troops to drive the French from their trading posts Company forced the Mughal emperor to recognize its right to collect taxes in Bengal British East India Company was the real ruler of Bengal by late 1700’s Opens the door for total British control by the 19th Century

Slide 22: 

Sepoy Mutiny Sepoys mutinied in 1857 Immediate cause: New rifle used by British Army had a cartridge that was greased and one end had to be bitten off Hindus thought the grease was cow fat Muslims thought the grease was pig fat

Slide 23: 

Results of Sepoy Mutiny British gov’t intervened Control of India was taken from the British East India Company and given to the Crown Eventually, Britain made Afghanistan a protectorate to keep Russia out of India India does not gain independence from Great Britain until after World War II August 15, 1947

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