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Developing Evacuation Model using Dynamic Traffic Assignment : 

Developing Evacuation Model using Dynamic Traffic Assignment ChiPing Lam, Houston-Galveston Area Council Dr. Jim Benson, Texas Transportation Institute Peter Mazurek, Citilabs

Motivation : 

Motivation In September 2005, Hurricane Rita landed east of Houston Well over 1 million people attempted to evacuate from the eight county region Severe congestion as a results

Retreat! : 

Retreat! Evacuation routes became “parking lots”. Some people spent more than 18 hours on the evacuation routes Fatal accidents, abandoned cars, and other safety issues

Crawling Speed : 

Crawling Speed

In response… : 

In response… H-GAC coordinated with various governmental agencies to develop a hurricane evacuation plan. H-GAC was asked to develop a tool for evacuation planning.

Goal of this model : 

Goal of this model Re-generate the Rita evacuations Provide evacuation demands Estimate traffic volumes and delays Sensitive to various scenarios and plans Apply to non-evacuation planning (corridor, sub-area, ITS, etc)

Challenge - Model Size : 

Challenge - Model Size 8-county region with 4.7 million population in 2000 and is expected to grow to over 7.7 million by 2035. 3000 zones and 43,000 links 7,700 Square miles from CBD to rural area Around 14,000,000 daily trips modeled Long trip: average work trip length over 20 minutes, with almost 10% over 40 minutes

Challenge - Demands : 

Challenge - Demands Little Survey data for Rita event Future evacuation demands could be varied in Time period Response rate and number of trips Origin and Destination Interaction between evacuation, normal daily, and non-evacuation traffic

Challenge - Network : 

Challenge - Network Network change during evacuation Sensitive to Policy Factors Contra-flow lane Shoulder lane use HOV lane opens to public Ramp closure Signal timing Facilities become unavailable due to flooding, high wind, or other disasters

H-GAC Expectation : 

H-GAC Expectation Validation Normal Day Traffic Rita Year 2010 Scenario Able to adjust evacuation trip tables for different situations Sensitive to policy factors Allow road changes within evacuation

Estimation Of Hurricane Evacuation Demand Models : 

Estimation Of Hurricane Evacuation Demand Models Jim Benson Texas Transportation Institute

Today’s Presentation : 

Today’s Presentation Study Area And Data Base Trip Generation Models Trip Distribution Models Time-of-day Factors

H-GAC Study Area : 

H-GAC Study Area

Houston TranStar Rita Evacuation Survey : 

Houston TranStar Rita Evacuation Survey Solicited participation on website Participants responded to questions online 6,570 respondents 6,286 usable household responses 3,886 households evacuated by car or truck

Evacuation Generation Models : 

Evacuation Generation Models Models developed for Rita event Structured to facilitate exploring different evacuation scenarios

APPROACH : 

APPROACH Six-day event modeled Cross-classification variables: 6 geographical districts 5 household size groups Production models: Probability of evacuating Vehicle trips/evacuation household Trip purpose split Simple attraction models Non-resident trip models

Six Districts : 

Six Districts

Internal Evacuation Attractions : 

Internal Evacuation Attractions

External Station Evacuation Attractions : 

External Station Evacuation Attractions Distributed attractions to other urban areas based on their population and relative accessibility Allocated results to external stations

Rita Evacuation Generation Results : 

Rita Evacuation Generation Results

Two Trip Distribution Models : 

Two Trip Distribution Models Evacuation trips to internal zones Evacuation trips to external stations

Distribution Model For Internal Attractions : 

Distribution Model For Internal Attractions Essentially a “constrained interactance” model No friction factors No iterative process Constrained to productions Interaction constraint Productions allocated to eligible attraction zones based on relative attractiveness

Interaction Constraint : 

Interaction Constraint No attractions to zones in the 3 mandatory evacuation areas Eligible attraction zones must be either: Further from the coast, OR 80+ miles from the coast

Zones By Distance From Coast : 

Zones By Distance From Coast

Distribution Model For External Station Attractions : 

Distribution Model For External Station Attractions Similar to traditional external-local models using a gravity model Primary difference is that the external stations are treated the attractions Somewhat relaxed version of the normal external-local friction factors used

TRIP DISTRIBUTION RESULTS(normal off-peak speed travel time minutes) : 

TRIP DISTRIBUTION RESULTS(normal off-peak speed travel time minutes)

Time-of-day Factors : 

Time-of-day Factors Estimated from survey data Developed for each of the six districts Hourly Distribution for 6-day Event

Developing Alternative Scenarios : 

Developing Alternative Scenarios Consider adjustments to % households evacuating by district Consider adjusting hourly distributions by district Consider adjusting vehicle trip rates to reflect taking fewer vehicles by district

Next Step is Assignment…. : 

Next Step is Assignment….

Evacuation Model Development using Cube Avenue : 

Evacuation Model Development using Cube Avenue Pete Mazurek Director of Consulting Services Citilabs, Inc.

Input Parameter Types : 

Input Parameter Types Tool for Evacuation/Event Planning Needs to be sensitive to variations in THREE distinct types of inputs: Situational (Event-Specific) parameters Policy Change Inputs System and Background Inputs

Two Stages of The Evacuation Model Tool : 

Two Stages of The Evacuation Model Tool

System Demand Profile : 

System Demand Profile Background Demand Everyday, regular “average weekday” trips Stratified by hour for a 24-hour period 3 successive weekday periods to comprise 72-hours prior to storm landfall Progressively attenuated because regular trips are not taken once people evacuate Evacuation Demand The primary trip out of the storm’s path Stratified by hour for 72 hours prior to landfall

Dynamic Traffic Assignment (DTA) : 

Dynamic Traffic Assignment (DTA) Method of system-level (regional) assignment analysis which seeks to track the progress of a trip through the regional network over time Accounts for buildup of queues due to congestion and/or incidents A bridge between traditional region-level static assignment and corridor-level micro-simulation

Why use DTA? : 

Why use DTA? Why NOT use traditional (Static) assignment? No impact of queues No ability to deal with upstream impacts Links do not directly affect each other Not conducive to time-series analysis Why NOT use traffic micro-simulation? Study area of interest too large and complex Too much data and memory required Too many uncertainties to model accurately

Cube Avenue (DTA Module) : 

Cube Avenue (DTA Module) Add-on module to provide DTA capability for the Cube/ Cube Voyager model environment Cube User Interface Works with regional network in Cube Voyager Common scripting language and data requirements First full release of Cube Avenue works with latest version of Cube Voyager (4.1)

Cube Avenue Technical Facts : 

Cube Avenue Technical Facts Unit of travel is the “packet” Represents some number of vehicles traveling from same Origin to same Destination Link travel time/speed is a function of Link capacity Queue storage capacity Whether downstream links “block back” their queues Link volumes are counted in the time period when a packet leaves the link

Houston Evacuation DTA: Existing models and data : 

Houston Evacuation DTA: Existing models and data Tool is an add-on to existing H-GAC travel demand model in Cube Basic highway networks from regional model Adjustments to network based on event parameters Network modifications may vary across time horizon of event Flooding of low-lying links Failure/closure of facilities Reversal of freeway lanes

Houston Evacuation DTA Networks : 

Houston Evacuation DTA Networks Network from regional model Coding adjustments Centroid adjustment in downtown Capacity and Storage Adjustment Network Simplification Link Reduction Centroid Connectors Turning Movements/Prohibitions Intersection definition

72 x 1-hour Assignments? : 

72 x 1-hour Assignments? Entire 3-day storm approach window Individual 1-hour slices allows network changes What do we mean by 1-hour slice? 1-hour period of “analysis” from which results are reported Additional 1+ hour period of warmup (“pre-load”) whereby trips are loaded onto the network Ensures that trips in analysis period see and respond to full-load conditions

Houston Evacuation DTA Challenges : 

Houston Evacuation DTA Challenges Long trip lengths Memory Limitation Ramp and freeway coding Long Running Time

Challenges: Long Trip Lengths : 

Challenges: Long Trip Lengths Houston is a huge region Background trips >1 hour not uncommon In evacuation conditions, ~95% of trips are longer than 1 hour ~45% of trips are longer than 3 hours Longer “pre-load” to ensure maximum number of trips have a chance to complete their trip in the analysis period.

Long Evacuation Trip Lengths : 

Long Evacuation Trip Lengths

Challenges: Memory Limitations : 

Challenges: Memory Limitations Large dimensions of problem size Windows XP maximum memory for a single process is 2GB Limits the number of pre-load hours and iterations possible Network Simplification, reduce pre-load period and iterations Wait for Windows “Vista” 64-bit

Challenges: Ramp and Freeway Coding : 

Challenges: Ramp and Freeway Coding Texas style slip-ramps Networks are coded with Freeways and Frontage roads separated Link coding codes through lanes but not accel/decel lanes Storage capacity not accurately reflected by default coding

Ramp and Freeway Coding : 

Ramp and Freeway Coding

Challenges: Ramp and Freeway Coding : 

Challenges: Ramp and Freeway Coding Ramp storage capacity as-coded was minimal Queues from downstream intersections Queues block back onto mainline freeway lanes too frequently All mainline lanes have equal impact upon queue blockback Make ramp storage capacity large

Challenges: Long Running Times : 

Challenges: Long Running Times Simulations take hours to run one hour of simulation (with pre-load) X hours x 72 time periods => Long time Makes it difficult to test different tweaks Faster computer (processor/memory/hard drive) Wait for Windows “Vista” (64-bit) Capability to run selected hours only Cube Cluster distributed processing (future)

Next Steps/Still to Do : 

Next Steps/Still to Do Refine application and verify software performance Code intersections more explicitly Integrate attenuation of background demand Integrate evacuation demand Validate against known event speed/time data Re-visit time-of-day factors

Thank You : 

Thank You Peter Mazurek Director of Consulting Services Citilabs, Inc 222 Prince George St, Suite 100 Annapolis, MD 21401 (410) 990-0600 [email protected]

Current Progress : 

Current Progress Developed hourly trip tables for normal daily traffic Developed Rita evacuation demand trip table for entire 72-hours period Validating normal daily scenarios Show directional speed difference in peak period VMT and speeds Simplified network

Future Steps : 

Future Steps Modify trip generation and distribution models to adopt different evacuation scenarios Integrate normal daily and evacuation traffic to replicate Rita scenario Coding traffic signals and other traffic control devices Allow policy and environmental factors to change the network at specified time Randomly generate accidents

Questions : 

Questions ???

Slide 61: 

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