FSI Chapter 06

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6 : 

6 Lesson Plans

Knowledge Objectives (1 of 2) : 

Knowledge Objectives (1 of 2) Identify and describe the components of learning objectives. Identify and describe the parts of a lesson plan. Describe the four-step method of instruction. Describe the instructional preparation process.

Knowledge Objectives (2 of 2) : 

Knowledge Objectives (2 of 2) Describe the lesson plan adaptation process for the Fire Service Instructor I. Describe how a Fire Service Instructor II creates a lesson plan. Describe how a Fire Service Instructor II modifies a lesson plan.

Skills Objectives (1 of 2) : 

Skills Objectives (1 of 2) Utilize the four-step method of instruction. Review a lesson plan and identify the adaptations needed. Create a lesson plan that includes learning objectives, a lesson outline, instructional materials, instructional aids, and an evaluation plan.

Skills Objectives (2 of 2) : 

Skills Objectives (2 of 2) Adapt a lesson plan so that it both meets the needs of the students and ensures that learning objectives are met. Modify a lesson plan so that it both meets the needs of the students and ensures that all learning objectives are met.

Introduction (1 of 2) : 

Introduction (1 of 2) Instructors spend hours planning and preparing for a class. Many details to address: How much time will the class take? How many students will attend? What must students know? What equipment will be needed? In what order will the material be presented?

Introduction (2 of 2) : 

Introduction (2 of 2) All information compiled into lesson plan Detailed guide used by instructor for preparing and delivering instruction Well-prepared, thorough lesson plan increases quality of student learning Instructor I uses a lesson plan that is already developed. Instructor II may develop own lesson plan

Why Use a Lesson Plan? : 

Why Use a Lesson Plan? Lesson plans are important! Instruction without a lesson plan is like driving in a foreign country without a map. Goal is to reach destination Learning objectives are destination Without lesson plan with learning objectives, you may not even know what the destination is

Lesson Plans and Consistency : 

Lesson Plans and Consistency When a class is taught multiple times by different instructors, a lesson plan ensures that all students receive the same information. Lesson plan documents what was taught A new instructor can use an existing lesson plan to achieve the same learning objectives.

Learning Objectives : 

Learning Objectives Begin planning by identifying desired outcomes or objectives. Defined as a goal achieved by attaining a skill, knowledge, or both, and that can be observed or measured. Sometimes called performance outcomes or behavioral outcomes If students achieve learning objectives, they achieve desired outcome of class

Components of Learning Objectives : 

Components of Learning Objectives Many methods for writing learning objectives ABCD method is common Audience (Who?) Behavior (What?) Condition (How?) Degree (How much?)

Audience : 

Audience Describes who the students are Fire service learning objectives often use specific terms Fire fighter trainee Cadet Fire officer Students

Behavior : 

Behavior Must be observable, measurable action Don’t use words such as “know” or “understand” for the behavior. Use words for actions you can see and measure State Describe Identify

Condition : 

Condition Describes situation in which student will perform behavior Specific equipment or resources given to the student Personal protective clothing or safety items required when performing behavior Physical location or circumstances for performing behavior

Degree : 

Degree With what percentage of completion is the student expected to perform behavior? Total mastery would be 100% completion. Many times objectives are expected to be learned to passing rate for written exams (70–80%). Can also use time limit

Using the ABCD Method (1 of 2) : 

Using the ABCD Method (1 of 2) Objectives do not need to contain all ABCD parts. Often shortened because one or more elements assumed to be known Audience/condition May be listed once, at the top of all the objectives, or not listed at all

Using the ABCD Method (2 of 2) : 

Using the ABCD Method (2 of 2) Degree Commonly omitted Assumption that degree will be determined by testing method Shorten method only when clearly stated elsewhere in lesson plan Never omit behavior component

Parts of a Lesson Plan : 

Parts of a Lesson Plan Many different styles/formats Lesson plan should always include certain components. Required for understanding Necessary to follow lesson plan

Lesson Title or Topic : 

Lesson Title or Topic Describes what lesson plan is about Should help determine whether lesson plan contains information about topic you are planning to teach

Level of Instruction (1 of 2) : 

Level of Instruction (1 of 2) Students must be able to understand instructional material. Ensure plan written at appropriate level for students Level often corresponds with NFPA standards May be indicated by labels such as “beginner,” “intermediate,” or “advanced”

Level of Instruction (2 of 2) : 

Level of Instruction (2 of 2) Also identifies any prerequisites A prerequisite is a condition that must be met before the student is permitted to receive further instruction. Another class Certification Rank

Objectives and Outcomes : 

Objectives and Outcomes Backbone of lesson plan All lesson plans must have learning objectives Many methods for determining and listing learning objectives Instructor must understand learning objectives before presenting to students.

Instructional Materials Needed : 

Instructional Materials Needed Most lesson plans require some type of instructional materials. Designed to help present lesson plan to students Audiovisual aids Handouts, pictures, diagrams, models Additional supplies

Lesson Outline : 

Lesson Outline Main body of the lesson plan

References/Resources : 

References/Resources Lesson plans often contain only an outline of information. Instructors may not be expert in topic Instructors may need additional references or resources. May contain names of books, Web sites, or experts Verify validity of lesson plan

Lesson Summary : 

Lesson Summary Summarizes the lesson plan Reviews and reinforces main points

Assignment : 

Assignment Lesson plans often contain an assignment. Homework-type exercise Allows student to explore or apply material Be prepared to explain: Assignment and due date Method for submission Grading criteria

Four-Step Method of Instruction : 

Four-Step Method of Instruction Method of instruction most commonly used in fire service Preparation Presentation Application Evaluation

Four-Step Method of Instruction : 

Four-Step Method of Instruction

Preparation Step (1 of 2) : 

Preparation Step (1 of 2) Also called motivation step Prepares or motivates students to learn Provides information that explains why students will benefit from class Explain thoroughly. Lesson plan should contain rationale

Preparation Step (2 of 2) : 

Preparation Step (2 of 2) Fire Service Instructor I Gains students’ attention Prepares students to learn Fire Service Instructor II Develops lesson plan Includes preparation points Safety- and survival-related information Examples, explanations of how material will help students do job

Presentation Step : 

Presentation Step Actual presentation of lesson plan Lecture, lead discussions, use audiovisual aids, answer student questions Lesson plan contains outline of information to be presented Notes indicate use of teaching aids, when to take breaks, or where to get more information

Application Step (1 of 2) : 

Application Step (1 of 2) Students apply new knowledge Practice skills. Make mistakes. Retry skills as necessary. Instructors Provide direction and support. Ensure that safety rules are followed.

Application Step (2 of 2) : 

Application Step (2 of 2) Lesson plan lists activities or assignments students perform Fire service often requires skill sheets for evaluation Use step to make sure students progress along with lesson plan Allows students to actively participate and remain engaged

Evaluation Step : 

Evaluation Step Ensures students correctly acquired knowledge and skills May be written test or skill performance test Student must demonstrate competency without assistance Lesson plan indicates evaluation method and procedures for performing evaluation

Instructional Preparation : 

Instructional Preparation Once you have a lesson plan, the instructional preparation begins. Many questions must be answered. Use the information contained in the lesson plan as a guide.

Organizational Skills : 

Organizational Skills Organize class planning timeline. Identify time available to plan and prepare. Usually from when lesson plan is identified until day class is scheduled Identify milestones to accomplish. Obtain equipment or materials. Reserve classroom. Preview audiovisual aids.

Procuring Materials and Equipment : 

Procuring Materials and Equipment Methods for obtaining materials and equipment differ. Instructor may need to Contact the person responsible for purchasing training materials. Use an equipment checkout process.

Preparing for Instruction Delivery (1 of 2) : 

Preparing for Instruction Delivery (1 of 2) Most important part of instructional preparation is preparing for actual delivery of lesson plan Be familiar with information in lesson plan If necessary, consult references and research topic further Practice using any technology.

Preparing for Instruction Delivery (2 of 2) : 

Preparing for Instruction Delivery (2 of 2) Always rehearse presentation Should not see material for the first time during class Understand information being delivered. Adapt to particular needs of class

Adapting a Lesson Plan : 

Adapting a Lesson Plan Important distinction between a Fire Service Instructor I and a Fire Service Instructor II Fire Service Instructor II can modify a lesson plan Lesson plans rarely implemented exactly as written.

NFPA Job Performance Requirements (JPRs) for aFire Service Instructor I (1 of 2) : 

NFPA Job Performance Requirements (JPRs) for aFire Service Instructor I (1 of 2) 4.3.2 Review instructional materials, given the materials for a specific topic, target audience and learning environment, so that elements of the lesson plan, learning environment, and resources that need adaptation are identified.

NFPA JPRs for aFire Service Instructor I (2 of 2) : 

NFPA JPRs for aFire Service Instructor I (2 of 2) 4.3.3 Adapt a prepared lesson plan, given course materials and an assignment, so that the needs of the student and the objectives of the lesson plan are achieved.

Fire Service Instructor I (1 of 2) : 

Fire Service Instructor I (1 of 2) Before class Evaluate conditions. Evaluate facilities for appropriateness. Meet SOPs. Evaluate students’ limitations.

Fire Service Instructor I (2 of 2) : 

Fire Service Instructor I (2 of 2) Modifies method of instruction and course materials to meet student needs Makes adaptations due to: Learning environment Audience Capability of facilities Types of equipment available

Fire Service Instructor II : 

Fire Service Instructor II 5.3.3 Modify an existing lesson plan, given a topic, audience characteristics, and a lesson plan, so that the JPRs for the topic are achieved, and the plan includes learning objectives, a lesson outline, course materials, instructional aids, and an evaluation plan.

Adapt Vs. Modify : 

Adapt Vs. Modify Modify To make basic or fundamental changes Adapt To make fit (as for a specific or new use or situation)

Making Basic Changes to a Lesson Plan : 

Making Basic Changes to a Lesson Plan Fire Service Instructor II can make basic, fundamental changes. Changing performance outcomes Rewriting learning objectives Modifying lesson content Fire Service Instructor I cannot make these changes.

What Can an Instructor I Do? : 

What Can an Instructor I Do? Make lesson plan fit situation and conditions NFPA states that an Instructor I may modify method of instruction and course materials To meet the needs of the student To accommodate the instructor’s style

Level of Training : 

Level of Training Instructor must only perform actions within level of training Instructor I must recognize what can and cannot do Acting outside training may lead to liability. Check with superiors if unsure

Reviewing Materials for Adaptation (1 of 2) : 

Reviewing Materials for Adaptation (1 of 2) Instructor I can obtain lesson plan in many ways Must review Identify areas that need adaptation Must even review plans developed within own department Standards and procedures change

Reviewing Materials for Adaptation (2 of 2) : 

Reviewing Materials for Adaptation (2 of 2) Schedule adaptations before delivering plan to class Adaptations necessary for many reasons Learning environment Audience Capability of facilities Types of equipment available

Evaluating Local Conditions (1 of 2) : 

Evaluating Local Conditions (1 of 2) Focus on minor adjustments to fit local conditions and students’ needs. Know your audience. Which policies and procedures apply? What is the current level of knowledge and ability of your students? Which tools and equipment will your students use to perform skills?

Evaluating Local Conditions (2 of 2) : 

Evaluating Local Conditions (2 of 2) Know yourself. What is your experience level and ability? How familiar are you with the topic that will be taught? What is your teaching style? Adapt lesson plan so that you deliver lesson in the most effective way given your own abilities

Evaluating Facilities : 

Evaluating Facilities Review and adapt lesson plan based on facilities that will be used. Equipment available Student seating Classroom size Lighting Environmental noise

Meeting Local SOPs (1 of 2) : 

Meeting Local SOPs (1 of 2) Lesson plan must be reviewed to ensure that it meets and follows local SOPs Never teach information that contradicts a SOP. Confusing for students Creates liability for instructor

Meeting Local SOPs (2 of 2) : 

Meeting Local SOPs (2 of 2) When reviewing lesson plan, make note of SOPs that may cover this topic After reviewing lesson plan, research SOPs and ensure no conflicts exist If conflicts exist, adapt lesson plan to meet local SOPs. If you are not familiar with local SOPs, find someone to assist you.

Evaluating Limitations of Students : 

Evaluating Limitations of Students Review lesson plan based on student limitations, and adapt, if possible Appropriate educational level Verify prerequisite knowledge, skills If cannot adapt to students’ limitations, consider using different lesson plan.

Adapting a Prepared Lesson Plan : 

Adapting a Prepared Lesson Plan Should be a formal process Document adaptations in writing Instructor I may need to obtain approval for adaptations Ensure that adaptations are not really modifications. Adjustments should not significantly change the class or alter learning objectives.

Modifying the Method of Instruction : 

Modifying the Method of Instruction One area that an Instructor I may readily modify May be needed to allow you to effectively deliver lesson plan Should not change learning objectives Same information taught, just in a different format

Accommodating Instructor Style : 

Accommodating Instructor Style Lesson plans may be adapted to accommodate your style. Often reflects style of instructor who wrote it During review, consider whether lesson plan—and especially the presentation section—fits your style.

Meeting the Needs of the Students : 

Meeting the Needs of the Students All adaptations have one purpose. Meeting needs of students Main goal is to provide instruction that allows students to obtain knowledge or skills Verify goal after you review and adapt a lesson plan

Creating a Lesson Plan : 

Creating a Lesson Plan Responsibility of Instructor II Can take hours or weeks Goal Create document that any instructor can use to teach subject Ensure that students achieve the learning objectives. Many departments have templates. (Fire Service Instructor II)

Achieving JPRs : 

Achieving JPRs First step of lesson plan development is determining learning objectives What are students expected to achieve? Outcome may be obvious Teach a certain job or skill Outcome, learning objectives less clear Clarify outcome with person requesting class (Fire Service Instructor II)

Learning Objectives : 

Learning Objectives Once Instructor II has clear outcome for class, he or she should develop learning objectives. Can write objectives with ABCD method (Fire Service Instructor II)

Learning Objectives—Audience : 

Learning Objectives—Audience Describe the students who will take the class. Write objectives to identify specific audience, if applicable. For unknown or mixed audience, use “the fire fighter” or “the student” (Fire Service Instructor II)

Learning Objectives—Behavior(1 of 3) : 

Learning Objectives—Behavior(1 of 3) Specified using a clearly measurable action word Allows evaluation of student’s achievement of learning objective Consider level to which a student will achieve learning objective Bloom’s Taxonomy (Fire Service Instructor II)

Learning Objectives—Behavior(2 of 3) : 

Learning Objectives—Behavior(2 of 3) Fire service uses three lowest levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy Knowledge is remembering facts, definitions, numbers, and other items. Comprehension is displayed when students clarify or summarize important points. Application is the ability to solve problems or apply information learned in situations. (Fire Service Instructor II)

Learning Objectives—Behavior(3 of 3) : 

Learning Objectives—Behavior(3 of 3) No single correct format for determining which level or how many learning objectives Knowledge-based objectives ensure students learn facts and definitions. Comprehension objectives ensure students can summarize or clarify material. Application objectives ensure student can use information learned in lesson. (Fire Service Instructor II)

Converting JPRs into Learning Objectives (1 of 2) : 

Converting JPRs into Learning Objectives (1 of 2) Instructor II needs to develop learning objectives to meet JPRs listed in NFPA. JPR Describes a specific job task Lists items necessary to complete task Defines measurable, observable outcomes and evaluation areas for specific task (Fire Service Instructor II)

Converting JPRs into Learning Objectives (2 of 2) : 

Converting JPRs into Learning Objectives (2 of 2) Match learning objectives to JPRs when developing lesson plan JPRs in NFPA are not learning objectives, but can be used to create them NFPA annex section explains process of converting JPR to learning objective (Fire Service Instructor II)

Creating the Lesson Outline : 

Creating the Lesson Outline Create after Determining performance outcomes Writing learning objectives for lesson plan Should contain Main body of lesson plan Is main component of the presentation step (Fire Service Instructor II)

Brainstorming Method for the Lesson Outline : 

Brainstorming Method for the Lesson Outline List information that needs to be taught to achieve learning objectives. Presentation section Start basic and move to complex Topics should flow together. Application section Topics require student to apply information Activities or skills practice (Fire Service Instructor II)

Two-Column Method for the Lesson Outline : 

Two-Column Method for the Lesson Outline First column contains outline of material to be taught Simple for experienced instructors Detailed for less experienced instructors Second column contains comments or suggestions to help instructor understand outline Can include learning objectives (Fire Service Instructor II)

Instructional Materials : 

Instructional Materials Identify and list in lesson plan Be specific. Often including one instructional aid creates a need for more Example: If using a DVD, will need player and projection system. (Fire Service Instructor II)

Evaluation Plan : 

Evaluation Plan Final part of lesson plan Each part of evaluation plan should be directly tied to learning objectives Describe evaluation plan—do not provide actual evaluation Include skills performance tests with instructional materials and hand out to students to prepare for testing (Fire Service Instructor II)

Modifying a Lesson Plan (1 of 2) : 

Modifying a Lesson Plan (1 of 2) Done by Fire Service Instructor II Makes fundamental changes When making substantial changes, completely revise lesson plan Use process used to develop original lesson plan Make necessary changes in all sections. (Fire Service Instructor II)

Modifying a Lesson Plan (2 of 2) : 

Modifying a Lesson Plan (2 of 2) Obtain approval for change From authority with jurisdiction (curriculum committee, fire chief, etc.) Modify in compliance with agency policy and procedures. Update references. Keep copy of original (Fire Service Instructor II)

Using a Standard Lesson Plan Format (1 of 2) : 

Using a Standard Lesson Plan Format (1 of 2) Incorporate four-step method Consistent, accurate information Others can use plan for similar outcome Can compare to incident action plan (Fire Service Instructor II)

Using a Standard Lesson Plan Format (2 of 2) : 

Using a Standard Lesson Plan Format (2 of 2) Modify existing plans Reflect department procedures, practices Use fire service references, NFPA to provide validity Ensures that instructor covers legal and ethical concerns (Fire Service Instructor II)

Summary (1 of 2) : 

Summary (1 of 2) Quality instruction requires lesson plans with clear learning objectives. Have many components The process most commonly used for delivering a lesson plan includes preparation, presentation, application, and evaluation steps.

Summary (2 of 2) : 

Summary (2 of 2) Fire Service Instructor I Uses a lesson plan to teach a class May adapt lesson plan to meet class needs Fire Service Instructor II Creates a new lesson plan May modify existing lesson plan Learning objectives are basis for rest of lesson plan

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