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CHAPTER 11 Religion, Education and Medicine : 

CHAPTER 11 Religion, Education and Medicine Collaborations of Rinalin, Jacquelyn, Thomas & Amber PowerPoint presentation made by Rinalin Quick

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has to do with those socially shared and organized ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that concern ultimate meanings about the existence of the supernatural or "beyond “ Religion Sacred involving those aspect of social reality that are set apart and forbidden Profane- those aspect of social reality that Are everyday and commonplace. Rituals- social acts prescribed by rules that dictate how human being should behave in the Presence of the sacred

A Global View: Varieties of Religious Behavior : 

A Global View: Varieties of Religious Behavior Islam Sikhs Hindus Christians Buddhists Jews Sacred Profane Rituals

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Mana A diffuse,impersonal,supernatural force that exists in nature for good or evil. In Chinese establishment the cat in front of the door is waving to us, asking us to come into the shop or asking good fortune to visit the establishment. Animism- is pattern of religious behavior that involves a belief in sprits or otherworldly beings. example, see spirits, animals ,plants, rocks, stars, rivers. Theism- religion is centered in a belief in gods who are thought to be powerful. To have an interest in human affairs and to merit Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are forms of monotheism or belief on one god. Polytheism or belief on many gods with equal or relatively similar power. Maneki Neko - Beckoning Cat Simple Supernaturalism

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Church is a religious organization that consider itself uniquely legitimate and typically enjoys a positive relationship with mainstream society. The Denomination accepts the legitimacy claims of other religious and enjoys a positive relationship with dominant society. The Sect is a religious organization that stands apart from mainstream society but is a rooted in established religious traditions. The Cult is a religious movement that represents a new and independent religious tradition Religious Organization

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Religion and secular change The Protestant Ethic Weber studied how religious ethic (perspective and values engendered by a religious way of thinking) affect people’s behavior Calvinist ethos Doctrine of predestination Asceticism (a life of hard work, sobriety, thrift, restraint, and the avoidance of earthly pleasures) is proof of salvation and faith

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Religion In Contemporary U.S life Fundamentalism and Evangelicalism Fundamentalism is a primarily a Protestant movement that opposes "modernist” theology and seeks to conserve the basic principles underlying traditional Christianity; it views the bible as the literal unerring word of god Evangelicalism is a “glad tiding’ movement whose members profess a personal relationships with Jesus Christ; adherent believe that the bible provides only the Authoritative basis for faith, stress the importance of personal conversation The “Religious Marketplace” U.S. affiliations diverse and fluid Many religious conservatives have entered political arena High-cost faiths consistently outperform more mainstream counterparts “Nonreligious movement” on rise

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Islamic Fundamentalism Fundamentalism feature of all religious traditions that change and evolve Iranian Revolution of 1979 Important to stress that Islam and Muslims not monolithic

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State-Church Issues Civil Religion These are the religious dimensions are express in A set of beliefs, symbols, and rituals Religion and Morality morality should hold in a plural society And continues to gene The Functionalist Perspective Social Cohesion social Control The elementary forms of religious life(1912/1965) Emile Durkheim showed how religion serves the functions of social Cohesions and social control in a study of the Arunta practice Totemism, a religious system in which a clan (a kin group) takes the name of ,claims descent from and tributes sacred properties to a plant or Animal.

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Religion is weapon; source of conflict or change Marx: opium of the people Frequently legitimates status quo Under some circumstances religion can be profound revolutionary force Conflict Perspective on Religion

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Learning Teachers Students

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Education The institution of education is how most societies now try to relay particular attitudes, knowledge and skills to their members through extended formal and detailed training Education is a way to insure that members of society can effectively participate in the process of socialization through behavior and knowledge. The Start of Formal Education to Today’s Formal Education Schools first came to existence several thousand years ago to prepare a certain few for the limited number of leadership positions within their society. In the United States, even as recently as just one hundred and fifty years ago, most of the population was not formally educated within schools. Actually, ninety percent of the entire United States population at the time worked on farms and only one in ten children attended school. Even in the early nineteen hundreds, fewer than half the students who attended school in the fifth grade did not continue school to graduate high school.

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Today the United States has an elaborate education system which requires that children from the ages of five to seventeen to attend school or have some type of formal education in which a high school diploma can eventually be attained. Most of these children attend school for much of every weekday. The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001 The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 greatly increased the partaking of the federal government into the public education system. This act holds states accountable for their math and reading standards. State educational authorities set the number of days in a school year and direct state money for certain programs. The NCLB requires that test scores be computed for each individual racial subgroup so that schools can assure that there is not a significant difference in achievement between racial subgroups. Critics of the NCLB argue that it does not work to the advantage of the poor, disabled or educationally disadvantaged

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The NCLB has not yet resulted in the improvement of students within schools. The Effectiveness of Schools The National Academies of Science have reported that the United States is falling behind in scientific leadership, with decreasing performance in the sciences due to the correlating decrease in Americans finishing their doctorate in sciences The effectiveness of schools and academic achievement of students depends not only on what happens in schools but also on structural inequities; this includes social and cultural environments of the students, including their families and communities, and the environment in which the school is located.

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The NCLB’s purpose is to measure school effectiveness through which the government defines school success by the number of students who pass the state mathematical and reading exams. Research has shown that the most effective schools are the ones who emphasize academic concerns- care by teachers in lesson planning, group instruction, high achievement expectations for their students, a high proportion of time spent of instruction and learning activities, the assignment and checking of homework and use of the library by the students

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The cost of college education also has a toll on whether or not people can afford to stay in college throughout the entire four years or more, which results in many dropping out before the completion of their degrees. At one time a college degree brought an elite occupational status with elite pay; today it brings a middle-class status with middle-class pay. Even with this in mind, any education that is higher than a high school diploma will have its benefits.

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The Availability of Higher Education Many Factors make it hard for youth minorities to gain entrance to and then remain in college. 1. These students normally have weaker academic preparation in elementary and secondary schools than white students 2. Most campuses lack a critical mass of minority students and faculty who can serve as role models and make new students feel at home. Many minorities are first-generation collegians and they do not receive the same amount of emotional and financial support as second or third generation collegians.

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Medicine Disease- cure system Physician The Doctor-Patient relationship Nurse

Health is defined by the World Health Organization as “a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.”   Disease is a condition that an organism does not function properly because of a biological cause   The U.S. has a “disease-cure system.” They view the body as a machine. By replacing certain parts body with artificial parts, a person can get better. This leads to expensive surgery when we only need to prevent the disease or promote health. Medicine

Health is important for the preservation of people and social life  Conflict Perspective  People prefer health over illness, but some can achieve better health than others because they have access to resources to contribute to good health and to recovery if they become sick.   Interaction list Perspective  Members of society determine if a condition is or is not a sickness. The Functionalist Perspective

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Health Care The United States is the only Western industrialized nation that does not guarantee basic health care services to all its citizens Every year more than 57,000 people die in the United States because they fail to receive the health care that the medical profession knows they need Infant Mortality Rates, 2006 Life Expectancy, 2006

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·  More walk-in clinics are being established ·   Managed care arrangements are designed to guide the process of patient care through the incorporation of payment     plans, regulations on how and where patients can be treated, and requirements for providers of all aspects of care · Health maintenance organizations (HMOs) and preferred provider organizations (PPOs) are now very common Managed Care

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