Fossil Fuels

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Fossil Fuels : 

Fossil Fuels Penny Psihogios Sipiera

What are fossil fuels? : 

What are fossil fuels? Fossil fuels, coal, oil and natural gas, are a non-renewable source of energy. Formed from plants and animals that lived up to 300 million years ago, fossil fuels are found in deposits beneath the earth. The fuels are burned to release the chemical energy that is stored within this resource. Energy is essential to modern society as we know it. Over 85% of our energy demands are met by the combustion of fossil fuels.

3Types of Gases : 

3Types of Gases There are three major forms of fossil fuels: coal, oil and natural gas.

How is Coal formed? : 

How is Coal formed? Coal is formed in a similar to the other fossil fuels, though it goes through a different process, coalification. Coal is made of decomposed plant matter in conditions of high temperature and pressure, though it takes a relatively shorter amount of time to form. Coal is not a uniform substance either, it's composition varies from deposit to deposit. Factors that cause this deviation are the types of original plant matter, and the extent the plant matter decomposed.

Stages of Coal Formation : 

Stages of Coal Formation Coal forms from the remains of plants which died in prehistoric swamps and wetlands. Organic plant matter at various stages of decay form peat, which, under certain pressure, time and heat conditions experiences slow rates of bacterial decay and eventually goes on to form coal. As peat is buried by sediment and becomes compressed, it slowly releases water and other elements contained within it, resulting in an increasingly compact and carbon rich substance. The natural process converting plant matter to peat may go through different stages, first forming lignite, then sub bituminous coal, bituminous coal and eventually anthracite coal.

How is Coal used as a Fossil Fuel? : 

How is Coal used as a Fossil Fuel? Coal is primarily used as a solid fuel to produce heat through combustion.

How is Oil Formed? : 

How is Oil Formed? Oil was formed from the remains of animals and plants (diatoms) that lived millions of years ago in a marine (water) environment before the dinosaurs.

How is oil used as a Fossil Fuel? : 

How is oil used as a Fossil Fuel? As a fossil fuel oil is used to create motor gasoline and diesel fuel. Its also used to make ink, crayons, bubble gum. Dishwashing soap, deodorant, eyeglasses, CDs and DVDs, tires, ammonia, heart valves and fueling car.

How is natural gas formed? : 

How is natural gas formed? Natural gases form mainly from the remains of plankton, or a type of small water organisms including algae.

Natural Gas uses : 

Natural Gas uses Natural gas is used to produce steel, glass, paper, clothing, brick, electricity and as an essential raw material for many common products. Some products that use natural gas as a raw material are: paints, fertilizer, plastics, antifreeze, dyes, photographic film, medicines, and explosives.

Refineries : 

Refineries Refineries is an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into more useful petroleum products, such as gasoline . Refineries are important since the fossil fuels undergo steps to help purify the substances.

Exxon Valdez oil spill : 

Exxon Valdez oil spill The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in Prince William Sound, Alaska, on March 24, 1989, when the Exxon Valdez, an oil tanker bound for Long Beach, California, hit Prince William Sound's Bligh Reef and spilled an estimated minimum 10.8 million US gallons of crude oil. It is considered to be one of the most devastating human-caused environmental disasters ever to occur in history. As significant as the Valdez spill was the largest ever in US waters it ranks well down on the list of the world's largest oil spills in terms of volume released. However, Prince William Sound's remote location made government and industry response efforts difficult and severely taxed existing plans for response. The region is a habitat for salmon, sea otters, seals and seabirds. The oil, originally extracted at the Prudhoe Bay oil field, eventually covered 1,300 miles of coastline and 11,000 square miles of ocean.

Deepwater Horizon oil spill : 

Deepwater Horizon oil spill The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill and the Gulf of Mexico oil spill) is a massive ongoing oil spill stemming from a sea floor oil gusher in the Gulf of Mexico. The spill started with an oil well blowout on April 20, 2010 which caused a catastrophic explosion on the Deepwater Horizon offshore oil drilling platform that was situated about 40 miles southeast of the Louisiana coast. Eleven platform workers are missing and presumed dead; the explosion also injured 17 others. The gusher originates from a deepwater oil well 5,000 feet below the ocean surface. Numerous estimates have been made for the amount of oil being discharged, ranging from 5,000 barrels to 100,000 barrels of crude oil per day. The exact spill flow rate is uncertain in part because BP has refused to allow scientists to conduct accurate measurements and is a matter of ongoing debate. The resulting oil slick covers a surface area of at least 2,500 square miles according to estimates reported on May 3, 2010, with the exact size and location of the slick fluctuating from day to day depending on weather conditions In addition, on May 15, researchers announced the discovery of immense underwater plumes of oil not visible from the surface.