The Motivation Equation Action Research Presentation

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The Motivation Equation: What Kind of Smart Are You?:

The Motivation Equation: What Kind of Smart Are You? By Nidi R. Miller University of North Florida April 29, 2011 An Action Research Proposal for the Foreign Language Classroom

Research Proposal:

Research Proposal The purpose of this study is to describe the effects of the implementation of a plan based on the results of various assessments, field observations, and interviews that focus on the unique learning styles of 9th to 11th grade high school students in a Spanish I class, in order to create a model that will empower unmotivated learners to complete assignments in and outside the classroom and take control of their learning .

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Some High School Foreign Language (FL) courses require that students extend the classroom sessions to the home-front. Students are expected to complete additional assignments at home. Seemingly less motivated students may have difficulty working outside of school. Students who become discouraged in their FL abilities have a tendency of shutting down . A student’s work ethics and performance may affect his/her overall grade point average. Motivation and Foreign Languages

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Research Questions In an effort to determine what are the motivating factors in foreign language education, specific questions are asked in this study such as: What increases student motivation while learning a foreign language? What drives students to excel inside and outside of the classroom? How can foreign language teachers facilitate students’ ownership over their learning? Does differentiating instruction promote a positive attitude and active participation? How does addressing a student’s Multiple Intelligences meet the needs of learners and increase motivation?

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What increases student motivation while learning a foreign language? Students are given choices over ways they learn the content standards, while still meeting their individual learning needs. Students feel as if it is their classroom and they are in control. Students are allowed to make important decisions concerning their learning as long as they are on task. Students feel confident in their abilities to learn, since the teacher trusts and encourages them to be responsible for making important educational decisions. (McCombs, 2011) Motivation Twenty First century Research Indicates that motivation begins when:

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Figure2. Comparing Classrooms Teacher-Centered Student-Centered ENVIRONMENT CLASSROOM VS

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What drives students to excel inside and outside of the classroom? Joseph Renzulli (1997), the developer of five Dimensions of Differentiation model, suggested that teachers could spark curiosity or inspire students by sharing “personal interests…hobbies, opinions or enthusiasm” (as cited in Blaz, 2006, p.7) and related it to issues involving content. Building a Community of Learners He also asserted that students were motivated to learn when they were inspired to work in an environment that allowed them the freedom to explore. As a matter of fact, Renzulli expressed the ideal learning scenario as a classroom that was comprised of “a combination of interests and learning centers, study areas, and work areas for artistic and scientific discoveries” (p. 7), a place in which inspiration and motivation resided.

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Cskiszentmihalyi (1989, 1990), in a self efficacy study found that participants who felt good about themselves when they were engaged in academic activities that “ mattered to them” (as cited in Strahan, 2008, p. 2) were more successful and had a good attitude about learning. They also applied metacognitive skills by using strategic planning as a self-regulatory technique. This was an important step in taking ownership of their learning. How can foreign language teachers facilitate students’ ownership over their learning?

Does differentiating instruction promote a positive attitude and active participation?:

Does differentiating instruction promote a positive attitude and active participation? Deborah Blaz (2006), educator and author of “Differentiated Instruction A Guide for Foreign Language Teachers” demonstrated how critical it is to identify unique learners in the classroom in order to reach them and help them “learn how to learn” (p.3).

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Student Growth in a Differentiated Classroom Begins When Teachers: Acknowledge the diverse learners in the classroom Address students’ Multiple Intelligences Reduce the affective filter of the learning environment

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How does addressing a student’s Multiple Intelligences meet the needs of learners and increase motivation?

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Howard Gardner first discussed his theory of Multiple Intelligences in 1983 in his publication “Frames of Minds”. He explained and identified multiple ways of describing an individual’s perceived intelligence or ways they were "smart". Gardner discovered there were some people who understood the world around them through strengths or the ability to be smart about the self, other people, math, and nature, physical, musical and spatial.  Gardner also pointed out that the modern classroom is not a homogenous environment, rather a diverse setting. Multiple Intelligences Please enjoy the following videos: Note: If the videos do not download through PowerPoint in the following slides (13 & 14) go to the end of the presentation and click on the “Star” to access the web links for each video. Howard Gardner of the Multiple Intelligence Theory Multiple Intelligences Thrive in Smartville CLICK HERE NEXT

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Click right arrow to go to slide 14 Edutopia , 2011 CLICK HERE AFTER VIEWING

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References Armstrong, T. (2000). Multiple intelligences in the classroom . VA: ASCD Publications Blaz, D. (2006). Differentiated instruction a guide for foreign language teachers. NY: Eye On Education, Inc. Blaz, D. (1999). Teacher’s guide to active learning . NY: Eye On Education, Inc. Cochran, J., R. S. McCallum, & S. M. Bell (2010). Three a's : how do attributions, attitudes, and aptitude contribute to foreign language learning. The American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) Foreign Language Annals, 43(4), 566-582. Drapeau , P. (2004). Differentiated Instruction making it work a practical guide to planning, managing, implementing differentiated instruction to meet the needs of all learners. New York: Scholastic Inc . Edutopia . (2011, April 22). Howard Gardner of the multiple intelligence theo ry [Video file]. Retrieved from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l2QtSbP4FR. Multiple Intelligences Thrive Edutopia . (2011, April 22). Multiple intelligences thrive in smartville . Retrieved from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7zBKAT3Ie_s. Gardner, H. (1999). Intelligence reframed multiple intelligences for the 21st century. New York: Basic Books. . McCombs, B. ( n.d .). Developing responsible and autonomous learners: key to motivating students. In American Psychological Association Zero Tolerance Task Force Report, Retrieved February 22, 2011, from the American Psychological Association Web site: http://www.apa.org/education/k12/learners.aspx . Mills, G.E., (2011). Action research a guide for the teacher researcher fourth edition. Silver, H.F., Strong, R.W., & Perini, M.J. (2000). So each may learn integrating learning styles and multiple intelligences . VA: ASCD Publications. Stock Photography, (2011). Retrieved from google images.com. Strahan, D. (2008,). Successful teachers develop academic momentum with reluctant students. Middle School Journal, 39 (5), 4-12. Retrieved From http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/EJ793540.pdf. Tomlinson, C.A. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms, 2 nd Edition. VA: ASCD Publications. Troup County School System. (2010). Differentiation Resources . Retrieved from: http://troup612resources.troup.k12.ga.us/Instructional%20Strategies%20&%20Resources/Differentiat ion/Differentiation.htm. End of Presentation Thank you! Click the “Star” icon for movie web links Howard Gardner of the Multiple Intelligence Theory. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l2QtSbP4FRg Multiple Intelligences Thrive in Smartville . http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7zBKAT3Ie_s YouTube Movie links:

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