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31 1 HUMOR AND SOCIOLOGY by Don L. F. Nilsen and Alleen Pace Nilsen

Alleen and Her Friends : 

31 2 Alleen and Her Friends

Four Social Functions of Humor : 

31 3 Four Social Functions of Humor Meaning Making Hierarchy Building Cohesion Building Tension Relief (Kuipers 367)

Humor for Group Solidarityand for Discrimination : 

31 4 Humor for Group Solidarityand for Discrimination Humor “‘breaks the ice’ between strangers, unites people in different hierarchical positions, and creates a sense of shared ‘conspiracy’ in the context of illicit activities like gossiping or joking about superiors.” “The flip side of this inclusive function of humor is exclusion. Those who do not join in the laughter, because they do not get the joke, or even worse, because the joke targets them, will feel left out, shamed, or ridiculed.” (Kuipers 366)

Social Control Theory : 

31 5 Social Control Theory “Very recently, social control theory has been revived by Michael Billig, who in Laughter and Ridicule (2005) puts forward a theory of humor as a social correctie, closelyl lilnked with embarrassment, arguing that “ridicule, far from being a detachable negative, lies at the heart of humor.” (Billig (2005): 190) (Kuipers (2008) 365)

Humor as a Social System : 

31 6 Humor as a Social System Mahadev Apte said, “joking relationships…manifest a consciousness of group identity or solidarity” (1985, 66). David Viktoroff said, “One never laughs alone—laughter is always the laughter of a particular social group” (1953, 14). Henri Bergson called humor a “social corrective..intended to humiliate.” There is no interaction for Bergson; humor is one-sided: those who laugh and those who are lauged at. (Carroll in Raskin [2008] 305).

Gendered Humor : 

31 7 Gendered Humor Thomas and Inger Burns worked with 11 informants who encountered the same joke: “A newlywed couple agrees to refer to sexual intercourse as ‘doing the wash.’ One night the man turns to his wife in bed and suggests they ‘do the wash.’ The wife refuses. Later she reconsiders and consents to ‘do the wash,” whereupon the husband replies: ‘Oh, it’s all right. It was a small load and I did it by hand’” (Oring [2008] 201).

Slide 8: 

31 8 Informants were asked to comment on the actions in the joke, viz., the use of a euphemism for sex, the husband’s request for sex, the wife’s refusal, the wife’s subsequent acquiescence, and the husband’s recourse to masturbation. The point of the study was to explore the ways that these individual tellers related to the various aspects of the joke and to ascertain the joke’s psychological and social functions. The responses told a great deal about the listeners’ personalities. (Oring [2008] 201)

The Humane Humor Rules : 

31 9 The Humane Humor Rules 1. Never target an attribute that cannot be changed. (But this can be used as a manipulation device) 2. Target yourself (this is called self-depricating humor) 3. Target your own ethnic group or gender, but no other ethnic group or gender (Consider “Embodiment”) 3. Never target the victim 4. Always target a strength (NOTE: Teasing and Verbal Competition are empowering devices)

The People of the Joke : 

31 10 The People of the Joke The Scots became “the people of the joke” at about the same time as or slightly earlier than the Jews. These Scottish jokes were about the canny Scotsman who was covetous, argumentative, and obsessed with keeping the Sabbath. But in fact these jokes were told by Scots about Scots. They are therefore self-mocking in tone. (Davies [2008]: 175)

The Jews and the Scots : 

31 11 The Jews and the Scots What the Jews and the Scots have in common is a sense of double identity. They are both grounded in their religious tradition, and love to argue for the sake of argument. “From this arose the Jewish and Scottish pre-eminence in physics, philosophy and economics and in jokes that no other small nation can match” (Davies [2008]: 176).

Comedy Teams : 

31 12 Comedy Teams 43 out of the 500 entries in Ronald L. Smith’s Who’s Who in Comedy are about comedy teams. There are many reasons for this high number: Teams are often more recognized and more memorable than are the individuals who make up the teams.

Slide 13: 

31 13 Good “chemistry” enhances creativity and enjoyment. Through interacting with each other, team members can revitalize old gags. Differing appearances, personalities and voices provide for contrast and for the efficient creation of stock characters. With teams, audiences can enjoy both surprise and anticipation because while teams do new material they usually have a style that carries over from one performance to another. (Nilsen & Nilsen 82)

The Dyadic Tradition : 

31 14 The Dyadic Tradition This is a term coined by Elliott Oring to refer to the special joking relationship enjoyed by couples, siblings or close friends. “Dyadic traditions are largely humorous and much of that humor involves insult, abuse, or references to re-creations of shared, unpleasant experiences” (Oring [2008] 188).

Gender Issues : 

31 15 Gender Issues A. J. M. Sykes noted that obscene joking was acceptable between the sexes when the jokers are not danger of a real sexual relationship as with old men and very young women, or old women and much younger men. “The sexually possible relationships between men and women of the same age group were marked by modesty and restraint” (Oring (2008) 186)

Jokes : 

31 16 Jokes “The Brothers Grimm included comic tales in their famous collection of Kinder- und Hausmärchen (Children’s and Household Tales).” “Jokes and anecdotes comprised approximately a third of the tale type in Antti Aarne and Stith Thompson’s index The Types of the Folktale.” “Since the early 1960s, folklorists have been documenting, analyzing, and interpreting the jokes and joke cycles that have come to dominate oral expression in contemporary society.” (Oring [2008] 192-193)

Joke Cycles : 

31 17 Joke Cycles Elephant Jokes How do you know if an elephant has been in your refrigerator? There are footprints on the marshmallows. Dead Baby Jokes What is red and sits in the corner? A baby chewing on razor blades. Alan Dundes says that such jokes show a hostility and resentment against babies that resulted in the contraception and abortions from the 1960s to the 1980s, when the joke cycle ended. (Dundes [1987] 3-14).

Slide 18: 

31 18 Dumb blonde jokes Stupid Jokes Promiscuous Jokes Sick Jokes Challenger Jokes Polish Jokes Jewish American Mother Jokes Jewish American Princess Jokes Lightbulb Jokes Urban Legends Tall Tales Christie Davies (1990) showed that such jokes are not told about our adversaries, but are told about groups that are peripheral to the mainstream: in terms of geography, ethnicity, or economics. (Oring [2008] 194).


31 19 JAPS AND JAMS The Jewish American Princess is portrayed as “spoiled, self-centered, materialistic, excessively concerned about her appearance, and indifferent to sex and the needs of her family.” In contrast, the Jewish American Mother is portrayed as “over-solicitous of her children; she is ever concerned with their feeding and health; she suffers for them and enjoys her martyr role; and she looks forward to nothing so much as the attention and appreciation of her children” (Oring [2008] 203).

Challenger Jokes : 

31 20 Challenger Jokes “Challenger jokes did not appear all at once, but in stages. The weeks following the explosion of the shuttle on 28 January, 1986, jokes appeared on three different college campuses that focused on the acronym NASA (e.g. Need Another Seven Astronauts), on Bud Light (e.g. they found the flight recorder and all that was on it was, “no, Bud Light,” and on Christa McAuliff’s last words (“What’s this button for?).” “The jokes signaled a move towards closure; meaning a willingness to bring the tragedy back to private discourse” (Oring [2008] 196).

Alan Dundes’ “Cathartic Theory” : 

31 21 Alan Dundes’ “Cathartic Theory” Dundes views sexual and aggressive joking as cathartic. People use joking to express their repressed sexual and aggressive wishes. The cathartic theory of joking can also be applied to Auschwitz jokes, quadriplegic jokes, and Helen Keller jokes. (Oring [2008] 193).

Keying Jokes : 

31 22 Keying Jokes “Keying” refers to the words, actions and props that identify telling a joke as “performance.” Parties and roasts can be considered to be “joke places.” “Jokes may also be keyed by stereotypical actors and locales (“Guy goes into a bar…”); a pervasive present tense (“asks the bartender for a martini…”); formulaic introductions (“Have you heard the one about…”); appeals to tradition (“Here’s an old chestnut…”); and disclaimers (“My husband is the joke teller in the family, but...)” (Oring [2008] 200).

Late-Night Humor : 

31 23 Late-Night Humor “Alf Walle (1976) studied a diner in upstate New York and focused on the dynamics of joking during the period of 12:45 to 2:00 A.M.” “Many bars in the immediate area of the diner closed at 1:00 A.M. and waitresses who began work the previous evening got off at 1:30 A.M.” So this period, known locally as ‘the bar rush,’ was the period in which men from the bars went to try and pick up waitresses who were getting off from work” (Oring [2008] 199).

Slide 24: 

31 24 “The jokes provided a way for customers to test the availability of waitresses without risking a personal rejection.” “Similarly, waitresses could encourage someone they were interested in or discourage others without having to entertain or reject explicit sexual overtures.” “Thus joking in the social context of the bar rush was a coded communication about intimacy and sexual availability” (Oring [2008] 200).

Play : 

31 25 Play “Play is not the opposite of seriousness.” “The comic in ritual is not comic relief; it is another system of signification that speaks to, against, and with the serious one.” (Oring [2008] 189)

Slide 26: 

31 26 “Carnivals can be affairs of great seriousness requiring enormous discipline, expenditure, and even pain.” “The preparation for Carnival goes on throughout the year, and these preparations are not something apart from the festive celebration itself” But sometimes “carnival” goes too far. Some members of the Lutheran congregation use the term “chancel prancers” to label and criticize those members who take delight in “high church” and Catholic-like ritual behaviors (Oring [2008] 190).

Police Humor : 

31 27 Police Humor When California police office Adelle Roberts got out of her squad car to deal with a domestic dispute she heard yelling and things being thrown against the wall inside. Then a portable TV set cam crashing through the front window. She knocked very loudly and a voice inside asked, “Who is it?” “TV repair” Adelle responded, and the husband and wife caught onto the humor and came to the door smiling. (Morreall [2008] 240)

Political Humor : 

31 28 Political Humor “It is difficult to make stupidity jokes about a democratic leader with a popular mandate because it would imply that the people rather than the system were stupid since they put him there. Therefore, mass joking about the stupidity of politicians normally doesn’t exist in Western democracies

Slide 29: 

31 29 There is, however, joking about Sir Alec Douglas-Home (British Prime Minister 1963-4), President Gerald Ford, Vice-President Dan Quayle, President George “Dubya” Bush, and Governor Evan Mecham. What they have in ;common is that they were not elected in the usual way, and lost legitimacy as a consequence. (Davies (2008): 171)

Practical Jokes : 

31 30 Practical Jokes Some practical jokes become institutionalized: April Fool Jokes Halloween Trick-Or-Treat Jokes The Snipe Hunt The Farm Animal in the Classroom The Animated Corpse Video Clip: Piano

Slide 31: 

31 31 !Practical jokes occur during particular times of the year (April Fool’s Day, Halloween). They occur during certain events (Initiations, Weddings, Wakes) Certain groups are prone to practical jokes (students, males, fraternity or sorority friends) They are a means of social control, social resistance, and folk aesthetics. (Oring (2008) 187-188)


31 32 !!THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF MEANING Penelope Eckert said, “the use of variation does not simply reflect, but constructs, social categories and social meaning.” (Eckert 4)

!!!Joking and Social Rules: Community over Hierarchy : 

31 33 !!!Joking and Social Rules: Community over Hierarchy Mary Douglas says that joking promotes community over hierarchy and reveals ambiguities in the fabric of society. Douglas said that jokes are anti-rites that subvert the normative social order, the order usually validated and maintained by religious and civic rituals (Oring [2008] 187).

Related PowerPoints & DVD : 

31 34 Related PowerPoints & DVD Accidental Humor American Pop Language Body Humor Gender Issues Stand-Up Comedy Make ‘Em Laugh (DVDs)

Slide 35: 

31 35 References # 1: Alberts, J. “The Use of Humor in Managing Couples’ Conflict Interactions.” in Intimates in Conflict, Ed: D. Cahn. Hillside, NJ: Erlbaum, 1990. Alberts, J., Y. Kellar-Guenther, and J. R. Corman. “That’s Not Funny: Understanding Recipients’ Responses to Teasing.” Western Journal of Communication 60 (1996): 337-357. Apte, Mahadev L. Humor and Laughter: An Anthropological Approach. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1985. Attardo, Salvatore, and Victor Raskin. Script Theory Revis(it)ed: Joke Similarity and Joke Representation Model.” HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 4.3 (1991): 293-347. Baumgartner, Jody C., and Jonathan S. Morris, eds. Laughing Matters: Humor and American Politics in the Media Age. New York, NY: Routledge, 2008.

Slide 36: 

31 36 References # 2: Bechdel, Alison. Fun Home. New York, NY: Houton Mifflin, 2006. Bethea, Lisa Sparks, Shirley S. Travis, and Loretta Pecchioni. “Family Caregivers’ Use of Humor in Conveying Information about Caring for Dependent Older Adults.” Health Communication 12 (2000): 361-376. Bell, Nancy J., Paul E. McGhee, and Nelda S. Duffey. “Interpersonal Competence, Social Assertiveness, and the Development of Humour.” British Journal of Developmental Psychology 4 (1986): 51-55. Benjamin, Martin. Philosophy and this Actual World. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2003. Bergson, Henri. Le Rire: Essai sur la signification du Comique, 1899; translated by Wylie Sypher as Laughter. Garden City, NY: Doubleday 1956.

Slide 37: 

31 37 References # 3: Billig, Michael. Laughter and Ridicule: Towards a Social Critique of Humour. London, England: Sage, 2005. Billig, Michael. “Humour and Embarrassment: Limits of ‘Nice Guy’ Theories of Social Life.” Theory, Culture and Society 18.5 (2001): 23-43. Bippus, A. M. “Humor Usage in Comforting Episodes: Factors Predicting Outcomes.” Western Journal of Communication 64 (2000): 359-384. Bonaiuto, M., E. Castellana, and A. Pierro. “Arguing and Laughing: The Use of Humor to Negotiate In-Group Discussions.” HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 16.2 (2007): 183-223. Boskin, Joseph. Rebellious Laughter: People’s Humor in American Culture. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press,1997.

Slide 38: 

31 38 References # 4: Brown, Penelope, and Stephen C. Levinson. Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1987. Burma, John. “Humor as a Technique in Race Conflict.” American Sociological Review 11.6 (1946): 710-715. Carroll, Amy. “Historical Views of Humor” in Raskin [2008] 303-332. Chafe, Wallace L. The Importance of Not Being Earnest: The Feelilng Behind Laughter and Humor. Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins, 2007. Chang, Mei-Jung, and Charles R. Gruner. “Audience Reaction to Self-Disparaging Humor.” The Southern Speech Communication Journal 46 (1981): 419-426.

Slide 39: 

31 39 References # 5: Chapman, Antony J., Jean R. Smith, and Hugh C. Foot. “Humour, Laughter, and Social Interaction.” in Children’s Humor Eds. Paul E. McGhee and Antony J. Chapman, Chichester, NY: J. Wiley, 1980. Colston, Herbert. “‘Dewey Defeats Truman’ Interpreting Ironic Restatement.” Journal of Language and Social Psychology 19.1 (2000): 46-65. Coser, Rose. “Some Social Functions of Laughter: A Study of Humor in a Hospital Setting.” Human Relations 12.2 (1959): 171-182. Coser, Rose. “Laughter among Colleagues: A Study of the Social Functions of Humor among the Staff of a Mental Hospital.” Psychiatry 23.1 (1960): 81-95. Crawford, Mary. “Gender and Humor in Social Context.” Journal of Pragmatics 35 (2003): 1413-1430.

Slide 40: 

31 40 References # 6: Davies, Christie. The Mirth of Nations. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 2002. Davies, Christie. “‘The Dog that Didn’t Bark in the Night:’ A New Sociological Approach to the Cross-Cultural Study of Humor.” in Ruch (1998): 292-308. Davies, Christie. “Communication and Humor.” in Raskin (2008): 543-568. Davies, Christie. Ethnic Humor Around the World: A Comparative Analysis. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1990. Davies, Christie. “Ethnic Jokes, Moral Values, and Social Boundaries.” British Journal of Sociology 33.3 (1982): 383-403.

Slide 41: 

31 41 References # 7: Davies, Christie. “Humor and Popular Culture.” in Raskin [2008] 281-302. Davies, Christie. Jokes and Their Relation to Society. New York, NY: Mouton, 1998. Davies, Christie. Undertaking the Comparative Study of Humor. In Raskin 157-182. Davis, Murray. What’s So Funny? The Comic Conception of Culture and Society. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1993. De Koning, Erica, and R. L. Weiss. “The Relational Humor Inventory: Functions of Humor in Close Relationships.” American Journal of Family Therapy 30 (2002): 1-18.

Slide 42: 

31 42 References # 7: Duden, Arthur Power. Pardon Us, Mr. President: American Humor on Politics. New York, NY: A. S. Barnes, 1988. Dundes, Alan. “Auschwitz Jokes.” Western Folklore 42.4 (1983): 249-260. Dundes, Alan. Cracking Jokes: Studies of Sick Humor Cycles and Stereotypes. Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press, 1987. Dundes, Alan, and Carl R. Pagter. Never Try to Teach a Pig to Sing: Still More Urban Folklore from the Paperwork Empire. Detroit, MI: Wayne State Univ Press, 1996. Dundes, Alan, and Carl R. Pagter. Work Hard and You Shall be Rewarded: Urban Folklore from the Paperwork Empire. Bloomington, IN: Indiana Univ Press, 1975.

Slide 43: 

31 43 References # 8: Dundes, Alan, and Carl R. Pagter. Sometimes the Dragon Wins: Yet More Urban Folklore from the Paperwork Empire. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse Univ Press, 1996. Dundes, Alan, and Carl R. Pagter. When You’re Up to Your Ass in Alligators…: More Urban Folklore from the Paperwork Empire. Detroit, MI: Wayne State Univ Press, 1987. Eckert, Penelope. Constructing Meaning in Sociolinguistic Variation. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association in New Orleans, 2002. Emerson, Joan. “Negotiating the Serious Import of Humor.” Sociometry 32.2 (1969): 169-181. Everts, Elisa. “Identifying a Particular Family Humor Style: A Sociolinguistic Discourse Analysis.” HUMOR: Internatinal Journal of Humor Research 16.4 (2003): 369-412.

Slide 44: 

31 44 References # 9: Fine, Gary Alan. “Humorous Interactions and the Social Construction of Meaning: Making Sensxe in a Jocular Vein.” Studies in Symbolic Interaction 5.5 (1984): 83-101. Fine, Gary Alan. “Sociological Aspects of Humor.” in Goldstein and McGhee (1983); 159-182. Fine, Gary Alan, and Michaela de Soucey. “Joking Cultures: Humor Themes as Social Regulation in Group Life.” HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 18.1 (2005): 1-22. Ford, Thomas, and Mark Ferguson. “Social Consequences of Disparagement Humor: A Prejudiced Norm Theory.” Personality and Social Psychology Review 8.1 (2004): 79-94. Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman, and Nina Hyams. An Introduction to Language, 8th Edition. Boston, MA: Thomson Wadsworth, 2007.

Slide 45: 

31 45 References # 10: Georgakopoulou, Alexandra. “On the Sociolinguistics of Popular Films: Funny Characters, Funny Voices.” Journal of Modern Greek Studies 18 (2000): 119-133. Goffman, Erving. Interaction Ritual: Essays on Face-to-Face Behavior. New York, NY: Anchor/Doubleday, 1967. Goldstein, Donna. Laughter Out of Place: Race, Class, Violence and Sexuality in a Rio Shantytown. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2003. Goldstein, Jeffrey, and Paul McGhee, eds. Handbook of Humor Research New York, NY: Springer, 1983. Goldstein, Jeffrey, and Paul McGhee, eds. The Psychology of Humor. New York, NY: Academic Press, 1972.

Slide 46: 

31 46 References # 11: Gouin, Rachel. “What’s So Funny? Humor in Women’sAccounts of their Involvement of Social Action.” Qualitative Research 4.1 (2003): 25-44. Grimes, Wilma H. “The Mirth Experience in Public Address.” Speech Monographs 22 (1955): 243-255. Grimes, Wilma H. “A Theory of Humor for Public Address: The Mirth Experience.” Speech Monographs 22 (1955): 217-226. Gruner, Charles R. “Advice to the Beginning Speaker on Using Humor: What the Research Tells Us.” Communication Education 34 (1985): 142-147. Gruner, Charles R. “Effect of Humor on Speaker Ethos and Audience Information Gain.” Journal of Communication 17 (1967): 228-233.

Slide 47: 

31 47 References # 12: Gruner, Charles. Understanding Laughter: The Working of Wit and Humor. Chicago, IL: Nelson-Hall, 1978. Hackman, M. Z. “Reactions to the Use of Self-Disparaging Humor by Informative Public Speakers.” Southern Speech Communication Journal 53 (1998): 175-183. Hackman, M. Z., and T. A. Barthel-Hackman. “Communication Apprehension, Willingness to Communicate, and Sense of Humor: United States and New Zealand Perspectives.” Communication Quarterly 41 (1993): 282-291. Hampes, William P. “Relation between Intimacy and Humor.” Psychological Reports 71 (1992): 127-130. Hiller, Harry. “Humor and Hostility: A Neglected Aspect of Social Movement Analysis.” Qualitative Sociology 6.3 (1983): 255-265. Holmes, Janet. “Politeness, Power and Provocation: How Humor Functions in the Workplace.” Discourse Studies 2.2 (2000): 159-185.

Slide 48: 

31 48 References # 13: Holmes, Janet, and Meredith Marra. “Over the Edge? Subversive Humor between Colleagues and Friends.” HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 15.1 (2002): 65-87. Honeycutt, James M., and Renee Brown. “Did You Hear the One About? Typological and Spousal Differences in the Planning of Jokes and Sense of Humor in Marriage.” Communication Quarterly 46 (1998): 342-352. Janes, Leslie M., and James M. Olson. “Jeer Pressure: The Behavioral Effects of Observing Ridicule of Others.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 26.4 (2000): 474-485. Katz, Jack. “Families and Funny Mirrors: A Study of the Social Construction and Personal Embodiment of Humor.” American Journal of Sociology 101.5 (1996): 1194-1237. Keltner, Dacher, Randall C. Young, Erin A. Heerey, Carmen Oemig, and Natalie D. Monarch. “Teasing in Hierarchical and Intimate Relationships.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75.5 (1998): 1231-1247. Kercher, Stephen. Revel With a Cause, 2008.

Slide 49: 

31 49 References # 14: Koller, Marvin. Humor and Society: Explorations in the Sociology of Humor. Housston, TX: Cap and Gown Press, 1988. Kotthoff, Helga. “Gender and Humor: The State of the Art.” Journal of Pragmatics 38.1 (2006): 4-25. Kotthoff, Helga. “Gender and Joking: On the Complexities of Women’s Image Politics in Humorous Narratives.” Journal of Pragmatics 32.1 (2000): 55-80. Kuipers, Giselinde. Good Humor, Bad Taste: A Sociology of the Joke. New York, NY: Mouton de Gruyter, 2006. Kuipers, Giselilnde. “The Social Construction of Digital Danger: Debating, Defusing, and Inflating the Moral Dangers of Online Humor and Pornography in the Netherlands and the United States.” New Media and Society 8.3 (2006): 379-400.

Slide 50: 

31 50 References # 15: Kuipers, Giselinde. “The Sociology of Humor.” in Raskin (2008) 361-398. LaFave, Lawrence. “Humor Judgements as a Function of Reference Groups and Identification Classes.” in Goldstein and McGhee (1972): 195-210. Lundy, Duane E., Josephine Tan, and Michael R. Cunningham. “Heterosexual Romantic Preferences: The Importance of Humor and Physical Attractiveness for Different Types of Relationships.” Personal Relationships 5 (1998): 311-325. McEntire, Nancy Cassell. “Purposeful Deceptions of the April Fool.” Western Folklore 61 (2002): 133-151. Malone, Bill C. Don’t Get above your Raisin’: Country Music and the Southern Working Class. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2002.

Slide 51: 

31 51 References # 16: Martin, Leslie R., Howard S. Friedman, Joan S. Tucker, Carol Tomlinson-Keasey, Michael H. Criqui, and Joseph E. Schwartz. “A Life Course Perspective on Childhood Cheerfulness and its Relation to Mortality Risk.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 28.9 (2002): 1155-1165. Martineau, William. “A Model of the Social Functions of Humor.” in Goldstein and McGhee (1972): 101-128. Mulkay, Michael. On Humour: Its Nature and Place in Modern Society. Oxford, England: Polity Press, 1988. Murstein, Bernard I., and Robert G. Brust. “Humor and Interpersonal Attraction.” Journal of Personality Assessment 49 (1985): 637-640.

Slide 52: 

31 52 References # 17: Nilsen, Alleen Pace, and Don L. F. Nilsen. Encyclopedia of 20th Century American Humor. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2000. O’Connor, Daniel C., and Sabine Kowal. “Laughter in Bill Clinton’s My Life (2004) Interviews.” Pragmatics 15.2-3 (2005): 275-299. Obdrlik, Antonin. “Gallows Humor: A Sociological Phenomenon.” American Journal of Sociology. 45.5 (1942): 709-716. Oring, Elliott. Engaging Humor. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2003.

Slide 53: 

31 53 References # 18: Oring, Elliott. Jokes and their Relations. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 1992. Oring, Elliott. “Risky Business: Political Jokes under Repressive Regimes.” Western Folklore 63.3 (2004): 209-236. Paton, George. “Humour at Work and the Work of Humour.” in Powell Paton and Wagg (1996): 105-138. Paton, George. “In Search of Literature on the Sociology of Humour: A Sociobibliographical Afterword.” in Powell and Paton (1988): 260-271. Pizzini, Franca. “Communication Hierarchies in Humor: Gender Differences in the Obstetrical/Gynaecalogical Setting.” Discourse and Society. 2 (1991): 477-488.

Slide 54: 

31 54 References # 19: Pollio, Howard, and C. Bainum. “Are Funny Groups Good at Problem Solving? A Methodological Evaluation and Some Preliminary Results.” Small Group Behavior 14 (1983): 379-404. Powell, Chris. “A Phenomenological Analysis of Humour in Society.” in Powell and Paton (1988): 86-105. Powell, Chris, and George Paton, eds. Humour in Society: Resistance and Control. Basingstoke, England: MacMillan, 1988. Powell, Chris, George Paton, and Stephen Wagg, eds. The Social Faces of Humour: Practices and Issues. Aldershot, England: Arena, 1996. Raskin, Victor, ed. The Primer of Humor Research. New York, NY: Mouton de Gruyter, 2008.

Slide 55: 

31 55 References # 20: Ruch, Willibald, ed. The Sense of Humor: Explorations of a Personality Characteristic. New York, NY: Mouton de Gruyter, 1998. Rust, John, and Jeffrey Goldstein. “Humor in Marital Adjustment.” HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 2 (1989): 217-223. Rutter, Jason. “The Stand-Up Introduction Sequence: Comparing Comedy Compères.” Journal of Pragmatics 32 (2000): 463-483. Speier, Hans. “Wit and Politics: An Essay on Laughter and Power.” The American Journal of Sociology. 103.5 (1998): 1352-1401. Stephenson, Richard. “Conflict and Control Functions of Humor.” The American Journal of Sociology 56.6 (1951): 569-574. Svebak, Sven, Rod A. Martin, and Jostein Holmen. “The Prevalence of Sense of Humor in a Large, Unselected Country Population in Norway: Relations with Age, Sex, and Some Health Indicators.” HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 17.1-2 (2004): 121-134.

Slide 56: 

31 56 References # 21: Tannen, Deborah. The Argument Culture: Stopping America’s War of Words. New York, NY: Ballantine, 1998. Viktoroff, Victor. Introduction à la Psycho-Sociologie du Rire. Paris, France: Presses Universitaires de France, 1953. Wanzer, Melissa Bekelja, Melanie Booth-Butterfield, and Steve Booth-Butterfield. “Are Funny People Popular? An Examination of Humor Orientation, Loneliness, and Social Attraction.” Communication Quarterly 44 (1996): 42-52. Watkins, Mel, ed. African American Humor: The Best Black Comedy from Slavery to Today. Chicago, IL: Lawrence Hill Books, 2002.

Slide 57: 

31 57 References # 22: Watkins, Mel. On the Real Side: Laughing, Lying, and Signifying. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster, 1994. White, Sabina, and Phame Camerena. “Laughter as a Stress Reducer in Small Groups.” HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 2 (1989): 73-80. Willeford, William. The Fool and His Sceptre: A Study in Clowns and Jesters and Their Audience. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1969. Williams, Dana A., ed. African American Humor, Irony, and Satire. Ishmael Reed, Satirically Speaking. Newcastle, England: Cambridge Scholars, 2007.

Slide 58: 

31 58 References # 23: Zijderveld, Anton. Reality in a Looking-Glass: Rationality through an Analysis of Traditional Folly. London, England: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1982. Zijderveld, Anton. “Trend Report on the Sociology of Humour and Laughter.” Current Sociology 31.3 (1983). Ziv, Avner, ed. Jewish Humor. Tel Aviv, Israel: Papyrus, 1986. Ziv, Avner, and Orit Gadish. “Humor and Marital Satisfaction.” Journal of Social Psychology 129.6 (1989): 759-768.

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