trench 2

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Rescue Technician – Trench Rescue Operations : 

Rescue Technician – Trench Rescue Operations Lesson 1-1: Preparation and Response

Preparation and Response : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.1 Preparation and Response Student Performance Objective: Given information from discussion, handouts, and reading materials, the student will recognize a trench rescue as a special rescue operation stating the OSHA requirement to make a trench safe, identify the reasons why rescues may go wrong, and identify tools and equipment that will be useful in a trench rescue operation. The student will define common terminology used, describe how to implement the IMS system, and describe how soil composition affects trench stability.

Preparation and Response : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.2 Preparation and Response Overview: Specialty Rescue Definition Definition of a Trench and Associated Terminology Trench Rescue Hazards and OSHA Regulations Why Rescues Go Wrong Rescue Teams and Apparatus OSHA Regulations for Rescuer Safety Incident Management System Soil Physics

Specialty Rescue Definition : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.3 Specialty Rescue Definition Big three Special people Special equipment Special training

Specialty Rescue Definition : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.4 Specialty Rescue Definition Levels of training Awareness Operations Technician

Trench and Associated Terminology : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.5 Trench and Associated Terminology Trench An excavation that is deeper than it is wide and is less than 15 wide at the bottom and less than 20 deep (OSHA) OSHA regulations govern trench operations in trenches 5 deep or deeper These regulations also apply to rescue scenes

Trench and Associated Terminology : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.6 Trench and Associated Terminology Competent person Usually the supervisor Determines soil profiles, safety concerns, protection mechanisms, and other performance factors

Trench and Associated Terminology Excavation Components : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.7 Trench and Associated Terminology Excavation Components Spoil Pile Floor Belly Lip Toe

Trench Rescue Hazards and OSHA Regulations : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.8 Trench Rescue Hazards and OSHA Regulations Hazards Trenches may not appear hazardous because they are familiar Placement of underground systems Removal of old utility systems Removal and placement of underground storage tanks Building foundations Basement construction

Trench Rescue Hazards and OSHA Regulations : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.9 Trench Rescue Hazards and OSHA Regulations Trenches are dangerous Once earth is distributed, pressure begins to act on the trench walls Sooner or later all trenches will cave in. It’s just a matter of time Trenches are dangerous because most of the hazards are not obvious

Trench Rescue Hazards and OSHA Regulations : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.10 Trench Rescue Hazards and OSHA Regulations Trench statistics Trench accidents have a higher fatality rate Approximately 100 fatalities per year 1000 to 1500 injuries – many permanently disabling Two types of trench rescues Dead victims Live victims

Trench Rescue Hazards and OSHA Regulations : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.11 Trench Rescue Hazards and OSHA Regulations Hidden hazards are due to human nature Would-be rescuers jump in and start digging. This results in large numbers of rescuer injuries and deaths A common fallacy says once collapse occurs, most people think it’s safe Backhoe or machine operators try to dig out the victim

Trench Rescue Hazards and OSHA Regulations : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.12 Trench Rescue Hazards and OSHA Regulations CFR 1926 Subpart P, excavations key points Previous “Contract Work Hours Standard Act” Inadvertent non-compliance due to wording or creating confusion with act Non-compliance since recommended systems cost more than fine Current standard contains 80% of the original act

Trench Rescue Hazards and OSHA Regulations : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.13 Trench Rescue Hazards and OSHA Regulations CFR 1926 Subpart P, excavations key points (continued) New standard Scope applies to all open excavations Application includes trenches Definitions included in standard

Trench Rescue Hazards and OSHA Regulations : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.14 Trench Rescue Hazards and OSHA Regulations CFR 1926 Subpart P, excavations key points (continued) General requirements All trenches must be protected before entry Protect trenches more than five feet deep including spoil pile Spoil pile must have two foot set back from top Provide means of egress every twenty five feet Monitor atmospheric hazards Monitor water accumulation and perform dewatering activities Determine soil classification Ensure competent person on site and inspect

Trench Rescue Hazards and OSHA Regulations : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.15 Trench Rescue Hazards and OSHA Regulations CFR 1926 Subpart P, excavations key points (continued) OSHA and trench rescue Application of standard varies by locality OSHA requires compliance

Trench Rescue Hazards and OSHA Regulations : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.16 Trench Rescue Hazards and OSHA Regulations CFR 1926 Subpart P, excavations key points (continued) How OSHA views trench rescue Rescue teams over engineer our systems The time spent in the trench is limited to rescue activities OSHA will get involved Accidents without a cave-in

Trench Rescue Hazards and OSHA Regulations : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.17 Trench Rescue Hazards and OSHA Regulations CFR 1926 Subpart P, excavations key points (continued) Specific excavation requirements Surface encumbrances Underground installations Access and egress Exposure to vehicular traffic Exposure to falling loads Warning system for mobile equipment

Trench Rescue Hazards and OSHA Regulations : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.18 Trench Rescue Hazards and OSHA Regulations CFR 1926 Subpart P, excavations key points (continued) Specific excavation requirements (continued) Hazardous atmospheres Protection from hazards with water accumulation Stability of adjacent structures Protection of employees from loose rock or soil Inspections Fall protection

Trench Rescue Hazards and OSHA Regulations : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.19 Trench Rescue Hazards and OSHA Regulations CFR 1926 Subpart P, excavations key points (continued) Protective systems requirements Employee protection Sloping and/or benching systems design Support systems design Materials and equipment Installation or removal of support Sloped or bench systems work areas Shield systems

Trench Rescue Hazards and OSHA Regulations : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.20 Trench Rescue Hazards and OSHA Regulations CFR 1926 Subpart P, excavations key points (continued) Appendix A: soil classification Appendix B: sloping and benching Appendix C: timber shoring for trenches Appendix D: aluminum hydraulic shoring for trenches Appendix E: alternatives to timber shoring Appendix F: selection of protective systems

Why Rescues Go Wrong : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.21 Why Rescues Go Wrong Conduct risk/benefit analysis Training is key Risk/benefit scale Rescue or recovery Risk to rescuer Benefit to situation Head vs. heart

Why Rescues Go Wrong : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.22 Why Rescues Go Wrong FAILURE acronym F: fail to understand environment A: additional medical implications not considered I: inadequate rescue skills L: lack of teamwork U: underestimate logistical needs R: rescue recovery not considered E: equipment not mastered

Rescue Teams and Apparatus : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.23 Rescue Teams and Apparatus Types of rescue teams Self sufficient Pros Commitment to training and personnel Equipped with significant specialized equipment Equipped with means of transporting equipment Cons: most expensive

Rescue Teams and Apparatus : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.24 Rescue Teams and Apparatus Types of rescue teams (continued) Community dependent Pros Infrequency of events may make this most feasible Economical because of personnel and equipment resources Cons Must still have trained personnel Require upkeep of logistics and call back list

Rescue Teams and Apparatus : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.25 Rescue Teams and Apparatus Types of rescue teams (continued) Regional team Pros Cost effective Reduce individual organizational cost Cons Difficult to maintain equipment, people, vehicle Requires maintaining organizational agreements and commitment

Rescue Teams and Apparatus : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.26 Rescue Teams and Apparatus Types of rescue teams (continued) Your team Success is in members of team Physically and mentally fit Good construction skills Trained medic personnel Team players

Rescue Teams and Apparatus : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.27 Rescue Teams and Apparatus Vehicles Vehicle extrication vehicle not appropriate Dump or flat bed vehicle Utility trailers Custom and converted vehicles Pod type transportation

OSHA Regulations for Rescuer Safety : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.28 OSHA Regulations for Rescuer Safety Escape routes = EXIT Egress must be provided every 25 If ladders used, they must extend 3 above the trench and be secured Air quality monitoring Monitoring is required if there are any indicators of bad atmosphere It is highly recommended to monitor all rescue scenes as a confined space

OSHA Regulations for Rescuer Safety : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.29 OSHA Regulations for Rescuer Safety Fall protection required if greater than 8 to 10 Impact protection Bell-bottom pier holes (bell-shaped bottom) Provide fall protection for rescuers Treat them as a confined space

Incident Management System : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.30 Incident Management System Incident management levels Strategic Incident commander Safety officer Liaison officer Public information officer Tactical extrication Operations officer Logistics officer

Incident Management System : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.31 Incident Management System Incident management levels (continued) Task Medical officer Extrication officer Support functions Air supply operations Cutting team Panel team Shoring team Protection from inclement weather RIT

Incident Management System : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.32 Incident Management System Incident management levels (continued) Logistics Staging officer Rehabilitation sector

Incident Management System : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.33 Incident Management System Command post Establish command from the vehicle upon arrival Establish the command post in a suitable location Inform responders and site workers of command post location Try to locate an office trailer on site if at all possible

Incident Management System : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.34 Incident Management System Staging area Placement of apparatus and equipment close to the site may be difficult Place responding units in a safe parking area after they drop off personnel Place responding units in an suitable area

Incident Management System : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.35 Incident Management System Tool staging and equipment supply area Place tool staging area close to the site to keep personnel from becoming fatigued Keep the tool staging area neat, clean, and in order Remove damaged or inappropriate tools or have them repaired Keep the site no closer than twice the distance from the lip as the trench is deep

Incident Management System : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.36 Incident Management System Maintain lighting, ventilation, and dewatering Lighting Establish scene lighting prior to sunset Use several power sources. Provides a back-up should one fail

Incident Management System : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.37 Incident Management System Maintain lighting, ventilation, and dewatering (continued) Ventilation Force fresh air into the trench because conditions can change in the trench Air monitoring should always precede the ventilation operation

Incident Management System : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.38 Incident Management System Maintain lighting, ventilation, and dewatering (continued) Dewatering Water may enter trench from several sources Operate system during trench rescue operations Requests that contractors assign a worker to maintain the system Assure there is a standby or back-up pump available Ensure exhaust systems from the pumps do not contaminate the trench

Soil Physics : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.39 Soil Physics Soil physics Gravity pulls everything to center of earth Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) is amount of resistance the soil has to pressure Hydrostatic pressure is increased pressure caused by the addition of water to the soil profile Active and passive soils Active soil has tendency to move Passive soil has no tendency to move

Soil Physics : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.40 Soil Physics Physical forces associated with collapse Weight One cubic foot of dirt weighs about 100 lbs. One cubic yard of dirt (3 x 3 x 3) weighs about 2,700 lbs. One gallon of dirt weighs approximately 13 lbs. One cubic foot of clay can weigh 140 lbs. One cubic foot of dry sand can weigh 65 lbs. Twenty-four inches of soil on the chest of a victim equals 750 to 1,000 lbs. The average collapse is 1.5 cubic yards (4,000 lbs.) Specific gravity: rock is 2.65 Water: 62.4 pounds c.f.

Soil Physics : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.41 Soil Physics Soil classes Stable rock: natural solid material that can be excavated with vertical sides and will remain intact when exposed Type A soil: silty hard clay, cohesive soils, UCS of 1.5 tons per sq. foot or greater Type B: some clay, some cohesiveness, but not as uniform; UCS > 0.5 tons but < 1.5 tons per sq. foot or less Type C: gravel, loamy sand or soft clay; UCS of 0.5 tons per sq. foot or less Other classes of soil: created by equipment manufacturers; C-60 and C-80

Soil Physics : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.42 Soil Physics Soil stability The more cohesive and uniform the soil is, the more stable it will be Clay is the most stable when shored It can be the most safe to work in when shored It can also be the most dangerous to work in

Soil Physics : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.43 Soil Physics Soil classification tests for stability adjustments Tests They must be done prior to work using OSHA procedures OSHA requires at least one visual and one manual test using testing devices Pocket penetrometer Shear vane

Soil Physics : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.44 Soil Physics Soil classification tests for stability adjustments (continued) Tests (continued) Thumb penetration test Class A: Clump of soil that the thumb won’t dent or break apart Class B: Clump of soil the thumb can partially indent or breaks with effort Class C: No clumps or wet soils

Soil Physics : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.45 Soil Physics Soil mechanics Collapses usually occur in less than 1/10 of a second and at speeds of about 45 mph There is no “being pulled out” No time to run out of trench

Speed of Collapsing Dirt : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.46 Speed of Collapsing Dirt Imagine this coming down on top of you….

Soil Physics : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.47 Soil Physics Distribution of forces 1 x 1 x 6 column = 600 psf 4 ft. vertical pressure = 400 psf Lateral pressure on unshored wall = 33% Effects cause rotational failure

Preparation and Response : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.48 Preparation and Response Student Performance Objective: Given information from discussion, handouts, and reading materials, the student will recognize a trench rescue as a special rescue operation stating the OSHA requirement to make a trench safe, identify the reasons why rescues may go wrong, and identify tools and equipment that will be useful in a trench rescue operation. The student will define common terminology used, describe how to implement the IMS system, and describe how soil composition affects trench stability.

Preparation and Response : 

S-RTTRO-1-1.49 Preparation and Response Review: Specialty Rescue Definition Definition of a Trench and Associated Terminology Trench Rescue Hazards and OSHA Regulations Why Rescues Go Wrong Rescue Teams and Apparatus OSHA Regulations for Rescuer Safety Incident Management System Soil Physics

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