Roman Republic

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ROMAN EMPIRE NOTES : 

ROMAN EMPIRE NOTES

DECLINE OF THE REPUBLIC : 

DECLINE OF THE REPUBLIC Conquered people forced to work as slaves; produced huge quantities of grain Small farmers no longer needed; flock to cities to seek jobs Empire grows wealthy & corruption increases Civil wars/power struggles

POWER STRUGGLES IN ROME : 

POWER STRUGGLES IN ROME Julius Caesar, an army general who had conquered the province of Gaul, used force to get the Senate to make him dictator, then tried to institute reforms to solve problems. This made him very popular with the common people (though not so much with the Senate). Enemies of Caesar believed he was trying to make himself king & he was murdered. After a power struggle against Marc Antony, Octavian Caesar (Julius’s nephew) got the Senate to give him the title‘Augustus’ (Exalted One) & declare him ‘first citizen.’ This marked the end of the Republic & the beginning of the Roman Empire.

the Pax Romana : 

the Pax Romana Augustus laid the foundation for a stable government that would function well for 200 years. This period was called the Pax Romana (Roman Peace). Augustus’s reforms Created efficient civil service to enforce the laws. Opened up high-level jobs to men of talent, regardless of race. Allowed cities and provinces to govern themselves. Ordered a census, or population count, in order to make the tax system more fair. Set up a postal service and issued new coins. Employed the jobless.

GRECO-ROMAN CIVILIZATION : 

GRECO-ROMAN CIVILIZATION The Romans adopted many aspects of Hellenistic culture after conquering Greece. They blended this with their own cultural achievements, & through trade & travel during the Pax Romana, spread Greco-Roman culture throughout the empire.

ROMAN CULTURAL ACHIEVEMENTS : 

ROMAN CULTURAL ACHIEVEMENTS LITERATURE/PHILOSOPHY TECHNOLOGY --imitated Greeks in prose & --built bridges, roads, poetry harbors, & aqueducts --Virgil--epic poem--the Aeniad throughout the empire --Stoics emphasized accepting one’s fate &concern for others’ well being ART & ARCHITECTURE SCIENCE --imitated Greek art--stressed realism --Galen--emperimental --improved columns methods --developed arch --Ptolemy--geocentric theory-- --scenes of everyday life evident Earth center of the universe in frescoes & mosaics on walls

Slide 7: 

AMPHITHEATRE

Slide 8: 

ROMAN AQUEDUCT AT NIMES, FRANCE

Slide 9: 

ARCH OF CONSTANTINE

Slide 10: 

RUINS OF THE COLOSSEUM

Slide 11: 

DOME ON THE PANTHEON

Slide 12: 

TILE MOSAIC OF PLATO & HIS STUDENTS (Note that it is a portrayal of an Ancient Greek philosopher. The Romans idolized the Greeks in just about every aspect of their culture.

Slide 13: 

ROMAN BRIDGE

ROMAN LAW : 

ROMAN LAW During the Empire, principles of law developed to ensure unity/stability. These later influenced American govt. An accused person was presumed to be innocent until proven guilty. The accused was permitted to face the accuser and offer a defense. Guilt had to be established through evidence. Judges were expected to interpret the laws and make fair decisions. Cicero addressing the Senate

RelIgion in the Early Empire : 

RelIgion in the Early Empire Conquered people allowed to worship their own gods as long as they also honored the Roman gods. (Monotheistic Jews excused from worshipping Roman gods.) As Christianity spread, Romans began to persecute Christians, & many became martyrs (people who die for their beliefs.

Teachings of Jesus : 

Teachings of Jesus Some of Jesus’ teachings were rooted in Judaism: Belief in one God Ten Commandments Mercy and sympathy for the poor and helpless Obedience to the laws of Moses Jesus also preached new beliefs: Called himself the Son of God Proclaimed that he brought salvation and eternal life to anyone who would believe in him Emphasized God’s love and taught the need for justice, morality, and service to others.

SPREAD OF CHRISTIANITY : 

SPREAD OF CHRISTIANITY At first, the apostles and disciples preached only in Judea. Disciples began to preach inJewish communities throughout the Roman world.Jews who accepted thebeliefs of Jesus became the first Christians. Paul spread Christianity beyond the Jewish communities, to non-Jews.

EARLY CHRISTIAN CHURCH : 

EARLY CHRISTIAN CHURCH Early Christian communities shared a common faith and a common way of worship. Hierarchy: Bishop--responsible for all Christians in a particular area called a diocese. Patriarch--authority over other bishops in their area.

The Empire in Crisis : 

The Empire in Crisis Emperors were repeatedly overthrown or assassinated. In one 50-year period, 26 emperors ruled, and only one died of natural causes. High taxes to support the army burdened business people and farmers. Poor farmers were forced to work and live on wealthy estates. Overcultivated farmland lost its productivity. Political Problems Economic & Social Problems Problems began to occur which brought an end to the Pax Romana—with Marcus Aurelius’s death.

REFORMERS--DIOCLETIAN : 

REFORMERS--DIOCLETIAN Two emperors tried to institute reforms (positive changes) to restore order. DIOCLETIAN Divided the empire into two parts to make it easier to govern Tried to increase the prestige of the emperor Fixed prices to slow inflation, or the rapid rise of prices Established laws to ensure steady production of food and goods

REFORMERS--CONSTANTINE : 

REFORMERS--CONSTANTINE Continued Diocletian’s reforms Granted toleration to Christians, which led to the rapid growth of Christianity—Edict of Milan Built a new capital at Constantinople, making the eastern part of the empire the center of power

BARBARIAN INVASIONS : 

BARBARIAN INVASIONS A weakened Rome could not withstand the forces of Germanic invasions. The Huns, led by Attila (the ‘Scourge of God’), dislodged other Germanic peoples and, little by little, conquered the Roman empire.

Slide 23: 

use of mercenaries

People to Know for Test : 

People to Know for Test Emperors: Cleopatra Augustus/Octavian Hannibal Caligula Julius Caesar Constantine Livy Diocletian Marc Antony Hadrian Paul of Tarsus Marcus Aurelius Pompey Nero Ptolemy Other people: Virgil Attila the Hun Jesus

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