Continuous Random Variables

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4-1 Continuous Random Variables : 

4-1 Continuous Random Variables

4-2 Probability Distributions and Probability Density Functions : 

4-2 Probability Distributions and Probability Density Functions Figure 4-1 Density function of a loading on a long, thin beam.

4-2 Probability Distributions and Probability Density Functions : 

4-2 Probability Distributions and Probability Density Functions Figure 4-2 Probability determined from the area under f(x).

4-2 Probability Distributions and Probability Density Functions : 

4-2 Probability Distributions and Probability Density Functions Definition

4-2 Probability Distributions and Probability Density Functions : 

4-2 Probability Distributions and Probability Density Functions Figure 4-3 Histogram approximates a probability density function.

4-2 Probability Distributions and Probability Density Functions : 

4-2 Probability Distributions and Probability Density Functions

4-2 Probability Distributions and Probability Density Functions : 

4-2 Probability Distributions and Probability Density Functions Example 4-2

4-2 Probability Distributions and Probability Density Functions : 

4-2 Probability Distributions and Probability Density Functions Figure 4-5 Probability density function for Example 4-2.

4-2 Probability Distributions and Probability Density Functions : 

4-2 Probability Distributions and Probability Density Functions Example 4-2 (continued)

4-3 Cumulative Distribution Functions : 

4-3 Cumulative Distribution Functions Definition

4-3 Cumulative Distribution Functions : 

4-3 Cumulative Distribution Functions Example 4-4

4-3 Cumulative Distribution Functions : 

4-3 Cumulative Distribution Functions Figure 4-7 Cumulative distribution function for Example 4-4.

4-4 Mean and Variance of a Continuous Random Variable : 

4-4 Mean and Variance of a Continuous Random Variable Definition

4-4 Mean and Variance of a Continuous Random Variable : 

4-4 Mean and Variance of a Continuous Random Variable Example 4-6

4-4 Mean and Variance of a Continuous Random Variable : 

4-4 Mean and Variance of a Continuous Random Variable Expected Value of a Function of a Continuous Random Variable

4-4 Mean and Variance of a Continuous Random Variable : 

4-4 Mean and Variance of a Continuous Random Variable Example 4-8

4-5 Continuous Uniform Random Variable : 

4-5 Continuous Uniform Random Variable Definition

4-5 Continuous Uniform Random Variable : 

4-5 Continuous Uniform Random Variable Figure 4-8 Continuous uniform probability density function.

4-5 Continuous Uniform Random Variable : 

4-5 Continuous Uniform Random Variable

4-5 Continuous Uniform Random Variable : 

4-5 Continuous Uniform Random Variable Example 4-9

4-5 Continuous Uniform Random Variable : 

4-5 Continuous Uniform Random Variable Figure 4-9 Probability for Example 4-9.

4-5 Continuous Uniform Random Variable : 

4-5 Continuous Uniform Random Variable

4-6 Normal Distribution : 

4-6 Normal Distribution Definition

4-6 Normal Distribution : 

4-6 Normal Distribution Figure 4-10 Normal probability density functions for selected values of the parameters  and 2.

4-6 Normal Distribution : 

4-6 Normal Distribution Some useful results concerning the normal distribution

4-6 Normal Distribution : 

4-6 Normal Distribution Definition

4-6 Normal Distribution : 

4-6 Normal Distribution Example 4-11 Figure 4-13 Standard normal probability density function.

4-6 Normal Distribution : 

4-6 Normal Distribution

4-6 Normal Distribution : 

4-6 Normal Distribution Example 4-13

4-6 Normal Distribution : 

4-6 Normal Distribution Figure 4-15 Standardizing a normal random variable.

4-6 Normal Distribution : 

4-6 Normal Distribution

4-6 Normal Distribution : 

4-6 Normal Distribution Example 4-14

4-6 Normal Distribution : 

4-6 Normal Distribution Example 4-14 (continued)

4-6 Normal Distribution : 

4-6 Normal Distribution Example 4-14 (continued) Figure 4-16 Determining the value of x to meet a specified probability.

4-7 Normal Approximation to the Binomial and Poisson Distributions : 

4-7 Normal Approximation to the Binomial and Poisson Distributions Under certain conditions, the normal distribution can be used to approximate the binomial distribution and the Poisson distribution.

4-7 Normal Approximation to the Binomial and Poisson Distributions : 

4-7 Normal Approximation to the Binomial and Poisson Distributions Figure 4-19 Normal approximation to the binomial.

4-7 Normal Approximation to the Binomial and Poisson Distributions : 

4-7 Normal Approximation to the Binomial and Poisson Distributions Example 4-17 Clearly, the probability in this example is difficult to compute. Fortunately, the normal distribution can be used to provide an excellent approximation in this example.

4-7 Normal Approximation to the Binomial and Poisson Distributions : 

4-7 Normal Approximation to the Binomial and Poisson Distributions Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution

4-7 Normal Approximation to the Binomial and Poisson Distributions : 

4-7 Normal Approximation to the Binomial and Poisson Distributions Example 4-18

4-7 Normal Approximation to the Binomial and Poisson Distributions : 

4-7 Normal Approximation to the Binomial and Poisson Distributions Figure 4-21 Conditions for approximating hypergeometric and binomial probabilities.

4-7 Normal Approximation to the Binomial and Poisson Distributions : 

4-7 Normal Approximation to the Binomial and Poisson Distributions Normal Approximation to the Poisson Distribution

4-7 Normal Approximation to the Binomial and Poisson Distributions : 

4-7 Normal Approximation to the Binomial and Poisson Distributions Example 4-20

4-9 Exponential Distribution : 

4-9 Exponential Distribution Definition

4-9 Exponential Distribution : 

4-9 Exponential Distribution

4-9 Exponential Distribution : 

4-9 Exponential Distribution Example 4-21

4-9 Exponential Distribution : 

4-9 Exponential Distribution Figure 4-23 Probability for the exponential distribution in Example 4-21.

4-9 Exponential Distribution : 

4-9 Exponential Distribution Example 4-21 (continued)

4-9 Exponential Distribution : 

4-9 Exponential Distribution Example 4-21 (continued)

4-9 Exponential Distribution : 

4-9 Exponential Distribution Example 4-21 (continued)

4-9 Exponential Distribution : 

4-9 Exponential Distribution Our starting point for observing the system does not matter. An even more interesting property of an exponential random variable is the lack of memory property. In Example 4-21, suppose that there are no log-ons from 12:00 to 12:15; the probability that there are no log-ons from 12:15 to 12:21 is still 0.082. Because we have already been waiting for 15 minutes, we feel that we are “due.” That is, the probability of a log-on in the next 6 minutes should be greater than 0.082. However, for an exponential distribution this is not true.

4-9 Exponential Distribution : 

4-9 Exponential Distribution Example 4-22

4-9 Exponential Distribution : 

4-9 Exponential Distribution Example 4-22 (continued)

4-9 Exponential Distribution : 

4-9 Exponential Distribution Example 4-22 (continued)

4-9 Exponential Distribution : 

4-9 Exponential Distribution Lack of Memory Property

4-9 Exponential Distribution : 

4-9 Exponential Distribution Figure 4-24 Lack of memory property of an Exponential distribution.

4-10 Erlang and Gamma Distributions : 

4-10 Erlang and Gamma Distributions 4-10.1 Erlang Distribution

4-10 Erlang and Gamma Distributions : 

4-10 Erlang and Gamma Distributions 4-10.1 Erlang Distribution Figure 4-25 Erlang probability density functions for selected values of r and .

4-10 Erlang and Gamma Distributions : 

4-10 Erlang and Gamma Distributions 4-10.1 Erlang Distribution

4-10 Erlang and Gamma Distributions : 

4-10 Erlang and Gamma Distributions 4-10.2 Gamma Distribution

4-10 Erlang and Gamma Distributions : 

4-10 Erlang and Gamma Distributions 4-10.2 Gamma Distribution

4-10 Erlang and Gamma Distributions : 

4-10 Erlang and Gamma Distributions 4-10.2 Gamma Distribution Figure 4-26 Gamma probability density functions for selected values of r and .

4-10 Erlang and Gamma Distributions : 

4-10 Erlang and Gamma Distributions 4-10.2 Gamma Distribution

4-11 Weibull Distribution : 

4-11 Weibull Distribution Definition

4-11 Weibull Distribution : 

4-11 Weibull Distribution Figure 4-27 Weibull probability density functions for selected values of  and .

4-11 Weibull Distribution : 

4-11 Weibull Distribution

4-11 Weibull Distribution : 

4-11 Weibull Distribution

4-11 Weibull Distribution : 

4-11 Weibull Distribution Example 4-25

4-12 Lognormal Distribution : 

4-12 Lognormal Distribution

4-12 Lognormal Distribution : 

4-12 Lognormal Distribution Figure 4-28 Lognormal probability density functions with  = 0 for selected values of 2.

4-12 Lognormal Distribution : 

4-12 Lognormal Distribution Example 4-26

4-12 Lognormal Distribution : 

4-12 Lognormal Distribution Example 4-26 (continued)

4-12 Lognormal Distribution : 

4-12 Lognormal Distribution Example 4-26 (continued)

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