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Slide 1: 

Global warming is defined as the increase of the average temperature on earth. As the earth is getting hotter, disaster like hurricanes, draughts and floods are getting mare frequent. Global warming

Earth’s Temperature : 

Earth’s Temperature

Slide 3: 

Natural factor Global warming Depletion of ozone Social factor Population Poverty Urbanization

Slide 5: 

Lack of awareness and infrastructure makes implementation of most of the laws relating to environment, extremely difficult and ineffective. INSTITUTIONAL FACTOR

Acid rain : 

Acid rain


ENVIORMENTAL DEGRADATION Environmental degradation is the deterioration in environmental quality from ambient concentrations of pollutants and other activities and processes such as improper land use and natural disasters.  Erosion of the quality of natural environment caused, directly or indirectly, by human activities.

Slide 8: 

Degradation of marine ecosystem due to oil seepage. Desertification. Deforestation of dense equatorial forests. Chernobyl nuclear disaster. Deterioration of mountain environment. Three gorges dam of china. Current scenario of environmental degradation

Greenhouse Effect : 

Greenhouse Effect Sun

Earth’s Atmospheric Gases : 

Earth’s Atmospheric Gases 99% 1% Non-Greenhouse Gases Greenhouse Gases

Runaway Greenhouse Effect : 

Sun Runaway Greenhouse Effect 97% carbon dioxide 3% nitrogen Water & sulfuric acid clouds Temperature:860°F

Carbon Dioxide : 

Carbon Dioxide

Worldwide Carbon Emissions : 

Worldwide Carbon Emissions Carbon (109 metric tons) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 Year

Kyoto Protocol : 

Kyoto Protocol Adopted in 1997 Cut CO2 emissions by 5% from 1990 levels for 2008-2012 Symbolic only, since cuts will not significantly impact global warming

Main Ocean Currents : 

Main Ocean Currents Adapted from IPCC SYR Figure 4-2

Orbital Parameters: Precession : 

Orbital Parameters: Precession Perihelion Apehelion

Orbital Parameters: Eccentricity : 

Orbital Parameters: Eccentricity Minimum: 0.005 Maximum: 0.061 Not to scale! To Scale!

Recent Temperature Changes : 

Recent Temperature Changes

“Hockey Stick” Controversey : 

“Hockey Stick” Controversey 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 -0.8 Year -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 Temperature Change (°C) Direct temperature measurements Mann et al. 1999

Ice Sheets Melting? : 

Ice Sheets Melting? GRACE (gravity measured by satellite) found melting of Antarctica equivalent to sea level rise of 0.4 mm/year (2 in/century) Zwally, 2005 (satellite radar altimetry) confirmed Antarctica melting Greenland ice melting onexterior, accumulating inland(higher precipitation)

Melting Glaciers – Mt. Kilimanjaro : 

Melting Glaciers – Mt. Kilimanjaro

Changes in Antarctica Ice Mass : 

1000 800 600 400 200 0 -200 -400 -600 2003 2004 2005 Ice Mass (km3) Year Changes in Antarctica Ice Mass

Rise in Sea Levels? : 

Rise in Sea Levels? Present rate is 1.8 ± 0.3 mm/yr (7.4 in/century) Accelerating at a rate of 0.013 ± 0.006 mm/yr2 If acceleration continues, could result in 12 in/century sea level rise Scenarios claiming 1 meter or more rise are unrealistic

How Much Temperature Increase? : 

How Much Temperature Increase? Some models propose up to 9°C increase this century Two studies put the minimum at 1.5°C and maximum at 4.5°C or 6.2°C Another study puts the minimum at 2.5°C

Wildlife Effects : 

Wildlife Effects Polar Bears Require pack ice to live Might eventually go extinct in the wild Sea turtles Breed on the same islands astheir birth Could go extinct on some islandsas beaches are flooded Other species may go extinct as rainfall patterns change throughout the world

Effect on Humans : 

Effect on Humans Fewer deaths from cold, more from heat Decreased thermohaline circulation Cooler temperatures in North Atlantic CO2 fertilization effect Precipitation changes Droughts and famine (some areas) Expanded arable land in Canada, Soviet Union

Drought in Africa : 

Drought in Africa Lake Faguibine Lake Chad

Cost to Stabilize CO2 Concentrations : 

Cost to Stabilize CO2 Concentrations 450 550 650 750 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 Carbon Dioxide (ppm) Cost (Trillons U.S. Dollars)

Possible Solutions to Global Warming : 

Possible Solutions to Global Warming

Mitigation of Global Warming : 

Mitigation of Global Warming Conservation Reduce energy needs Recycling Alternate energy sources Nuclear Wind Geothermal Hydroelectric Solar Fusion?


PREVENTION Today's society becomes ever more rapidly vulnerable to natural disasters due to the concentration of populations in mega-cities. Additionally, changes in the global environment threaten us with the possibility of severe typhoons, rising sea levels, droughts, among others. Considering these rapid changes of ambient conditions, vulnerability has increased due to growing urban populations, environmental degradation, and a lack of planning, land management and preparedness. Environmental disasters in many cases are effected by human usage of natural resources. They take place especially because of the negative impact of the over-exploitation of natural resources. Spatial planning and land management provide various tools to prevent natural hazards. The prevention of catastrophes in general is a consideration of spatial planning and land management on the regional and local level

Storage of CO2 in Geological Formations : 

Storage of CO2 in Geological Formations Depleted oil and gas reservoirs CO2 in enhanced oil and gas recovery Deep saline formations – (a) offshore (b) onshore CO2 in enhanced coal bed methane recovery Adapted from IPCC SRCCS Figure TS-7 3a 2 3b 1 4