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Introduction to UML : 

Introduction to UML Majid Ali Khan Spring 2005

Acknowledgements : 

Acknowledgements Slides material are taken from different sources including: Prashanth Aedunuthula UML presentation, Fall 2004 Lecture slides from Software Engineering course at UC Berkeley (Professor Necula – Fall 2004) Lecture slides from a course on web at: teaching/ws-98.99/OOA+D/3-0-UML.pdf

Overview : 

Overview What is Modeling? What is UML? A brief history of UML Understanding the basics of UML UML diagrams UML Modeling tools

Modeling : 

Modeling Describing a system at a high level of abstraction A model of the system Used for requirements and specifications Is it necessary to model software systems?

Object Oriented Modeling : 

Object Oriented Modeling

What is UML? : 

What is UML? UML stands for “Unified Modeling Language” It is a industry-standard graphical language for specifying, visualizing, constructing, and documenting the artifacts of software systems The UML uses mostly graphical notations to express the OO analysis and design of software projects.  Simplifies the complex process of software design

Why UML for Modeling : 

Why UML for Modeling Use graphical notation to communicate more clearly than natural language (imprecise) and code(too detailed). Help acquire an overall view of a system. UML is not dependent on any one language or technology. UML moves us from fragmentation to standardization.

History of UML : 

History of UML

Types of UML Diagrams : 

Types of UML Diagrams Use Case Diagram Class Diagram Sequence Diagram Collaboration Diagram State Diagram This is only a subset of diagrams … but are most widely used

Use Case Diagram : 

Use Case Diagram Used for describing a set of user scenarios Mainly used for capturing user requirements Work like a contract between end user and software developers

Slide 11: 

Use Case Diagram (core components) Actors: A role that a user plays with respect to the system,including human users and other systems. e.g.,inanimate physical objects (e.g. robot); an external system that needs some information from the current system. Use case: A set of scenarios that describing an interaction between a user and a system, including alternatives. System boundary: rectangle diagram representing the boundary between the actors and the system.

Use Case Diagram(core relationship) : 

Use Case Diagram(core relationship) Association: communication between an actor and a use case; Represented by a solid line. Generalization: relationship between one general use case and a special use case (used for defining special alternatives) Represented by a line with a triangular arrow head toward the parent use case.

Use Case Diagram(core relationship) : 

Use Case Diagram(core relationship) Extend: a dotted line labeled <<extend>> with an arrow toward the base case. The extending use case may add behavior to the base use case. The base class declares “extension points”. <<extend>> Include: a dotted line labeled <<include>> beginning at base use case and ending with an arrows pointing to the include use case. The include relationship occurs when a chunk of behavior is similar across more than one use case. Use “include” in stead of copying the description of that behavior. <<include>>

Use Case Diagrams : 

Use Case Diagrams Library System Borrow Order Title Fine Remittance Client Employee Supervisor A generalized description of how a system will be used.   Provides an overview of the intended functionality of the system Boundary Actor Use Case

Use Case Diagrams(cont.) : 

Use Case Diagrams(cont.) (TogetherSoft, Inc)

Use Case Diagrams(cont.) : 

Use Case Diagrams(cont.) Pay Bill is a parent use case and Bill Insurance is the child use case. (generalization) Both Make Appointment and Request Medication include Check Patient Record as a subtask.(include) The extension point is written inside the base case Pay bill; the extending class Defer payment adds the behavior of this extension point. (extend)

Class diagram : 

Class diagram Used for describing structure and behavior in the use cases Provide a conceptual model of the system in terms of entities and their relationships Used for requirement capture, end-user interaction Detailed class diagrams are used for developers

Class representation : 

Class representation Each class is represented by a rectangle subdivided into three compartments Name Attributes Operations Modifiers are used to indicate visibility of attributes and operations. ‘+’ is used to denote Public visibility (everyone) ‘#’ is used to denote Protected visibility (friends and derived) ‘-’ is used to denote Private visibility (no one) By default, attributes are hidden and operations are visible.

An example of Class : 

An example of Class

OO Relationships : 

OO Relationships There are two kinds of Relationships Generalization (parent-child relationship) Association (student enrolls in course) Associations can be further classified as Aggregation Composition

Slide 21: 

Subtype2 Supertype Subtype1 OO Relationships: Generalization - Generalization expresses a parent/child relationship among related classes. - Used for abstracting details in several layers Regular Customer Loyalty Customer Customer Example: Regular Customer Loyalty Customer Customer or:

OO Relationships: Association : 

Represent relationship between instances of classes Student enrolls in a course Courses have students Courses have exams Etc. Association has two ends Role names (e.g. enrolls) Multiplicity (e.g. One course can have many students) Navigability (unidirectional, bidirectional) OO Relationships: Association

Association: Multiplicity and Roles : 

Association: Multiplicity and Roles University Person 1 0..1 * * Multiplicity Symbol Meaning 1 One and only one 0..1 Zero or one M..N From M to N (natural language) * From zero to any positive integer 0..* From zero to any positive integer 1..* From one to any positive integer teacher employer Role Role “A given university groups many people; some act as students, others as teachers. A given student belongs to a single university; a given teacher may or may not be working for the university at a particular time.” student

Class Diagram : 

Class Diagram Order -dateReceived -isPrepaid -number :String -price : Money +dispatch() +close() Customer -name -address +creditRating() : String() Corporate Customer -contactName -creditRating -creditLimit +remind() +billForMonth(Integer) Personal Customer -creditCard# OrderLine -quantity: Integer -price: Money -isSatisfied: Boolean Product * 1 1 * Employee * {if Order.customer.creditRating is "poor", then Order.isPrepaid must be true } * 1 Constraint (inside braces{}} Operations Attributes Name Association Multiplicity: mandatory Multiplicity: Many value Multiplicity: optional Generalization [from UML Distilled Third Edition] class 0..1

Association: Model to Implementation : 

Association: Model to Implementation Class Student { Course enrolls[4]; } Class Course { Student have[]; } Student Course enrolls has * 4

Slide 26: 

OO Relationships: Composition Class W Class P1 Class P2 Composition: expresses a relationship among instances of related classes. It is a specific kind of Whole-Part relationship. It expresses a relationship where an instance of the Whole-class has the responsibility to create and initialize instances of each Part-class. It may also be used to express a relationship where instancesof the Part-classes have privileged access or visibility tocertain attributes and/or behaviors defined by theWhole-class. Composition should also be used to express relationship where instances of the Whole-class have exclusive access to and control of instances of the Part-classes. Composition should be used to express a relationship wherethe behavior of Part instances is undefined without beingrelated to an instance of the Whole. And, conversely, the behavior of the Whole is ill-defined or incomplete if one or more of the Part instances are undefined. Whole Class Part Classes Example [From Dr.David A. Workman]

OO Relationships: Aggregation : 

OO Relationships: Aggregation Class C Class E1 Class E2 AGGREGATION Aggregation: expresses a relationship among instances of related classes. It is a specific kind of Container-Containee relationship. It expresses a relationship where an instance of the Container-class has the responsibility to hold and maintain instances of each Containee-class that have been createdoutside the auspices of the Container-class. Aggregation should be used to express a more informalrelationship than composition expresses. That is, it is anappropriate relationship where the Container and its Containees can be manipulated independently. Aggregation is appropriate when Container and Containees have no special access privileges to each other. Container Class Containee Classes Bag Apples Milk Example [From Dr.David A. Workman]

Aggregation vs. Composition : 

Aggregation vs. Composition Composition is really a strong form of aggregation components have only one owner components cannot exist independent of their owner components live or die with their owner e.g. Each car has an engine that can not be shared with other cars. Aggregations may form "part of" the aggregate, but may not be essential to it. They may also exist independent of the aggregate. e.g. Apples may exist independent of the bag.

Good Practice: CRC Card : 

Class Reservations Responsibility Keep list of reserved titles Handle reservation Collaborators Catalog User session Good Practice: CRC Card Benefits: It is easy to describe how classes work by moving cards around; allows to quickly consider alternatives. (Class Responsibility Collaborator)

Sequence Diagram(make a phone call) : 

Sequence Diagram(make a phone call) Caller Phone Recipient Picks up Dial tone Dial Ring notification Ring Picks up Hello

Sequence Diagram:Object interaction : 

Sequence Diagram:Object interaction Self-Call: A message that an Object sends to itself. Condition: indicates when a message is sent. The message is sent only if the condition is true. Iteration Condition

Sequence Diagrams – Object Life Spans : 

Sequence Diagrams – Object Life Spans Creation Create message Object life starts at that point Activation Symbolized by rectangular stripes Place on the lifeline where object is activated. Rectangle also denotes when object is deactivated. Deletion Placing an ‘X’ on lifeline Object’s life ends at that point Activation bar

Sequence Diagram : 

Sequence Diagram Sequence diagrams demonstrate the behavior of objects in a use case by describing the objects and the messages they pass. The horizontal dimension shows the objects participating in the interaction. The vertical arrangement of messages indicates their order. The labels may contain the seq. # to indicate concurrency. Message

Interaction Diagrams: Collaboration diagrams : 

Interaction Diagrams: Collaboration diagrams User Catalog Reservations start 1: look up 2: title data 3 : [not available] reserve title 4 : title returned 5 : hold title 6 : borrow title 6: remove reservation 5: title available Shows the relationship between objects and the order of messages passed between them.  between them. The objects are listed as rectangles and arrows indicate the messages being passed The numbers next to the messages are called sequence numbers. They show the sequence of the messages as they are passed between the objects.  convey the same information as sequence diagrams, but focus on object roles instead of the time sequence.

State Diagrams (Billing Example) : 

State Diagrams (Billing Example) State Diagrams show the sequences of states an object goes through during its life cycle in response to stimuli, together with its responses and actions; an abstraction of all possible behaviors. Unpaid Start End Paid Invoice created paying Invoice destroying

State Diagrams (Traffic light example) : 

State Diagrams (Traffic light example) Yellow Red Green Traffic Light State Transition Green timer expires Yellow timer expires Car trips sensor Event Start

UML Modeling Tools : 

UML Modeling Tools Rational Rose ( by IBM TogetherSoft Control Center, Borland ( ArgoUML (free software) ( ) OpenSource; written in java Others ( )

Reference : 

Reference 1. UML Distilled: A Brief Guide to the Standard Object Modeling LanguageMartin Fowler, Kendall Scott 2. IBM Rational 3. Practical UML --- A Hands-On Introduction for Developers 4. Software Engineering Principles and Practice. Second Edition; Hans van Vliet. 5.

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