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mughal empire

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Sacred soul convent sr. sec. school Submited to- samal mam Submited by- jatin Jatin kapahi VIII th Roll no-12

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MUGHAL EMPIRE 1 . Babur 2. Humayun 3. Akbar 4. Jahangir 5. Shah Jahan 6. Aurangzeb

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babur Babur was the first Mughal, emperor of India (1526-30) and founder of the Mughal Dynasty there was Baber. He also won distinction as a military commander, a gifted poet and diarist, and an adventurer. As ruler of the principality of Fergana in Turkestan, his birthplace, Baber first tried to recover Samarkand, the former capital of the empire founded by his Mongol ancestor Timur Lenk, or Tamerlane (see Timur Lenk). He lost his own kingdom in 1503, seized Kabul, Afghanistan, the next year, and made a final unsuccessful attempt to capture Samarkand in 1511-12. Raiding India repeatedly, he defeated the sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodi, at the battle of Panipat (1526). He extended his domain in 1527 when, fighting with an outnumbered army, he defeated Rana Sanga , who led an army formed by a confederacy of Indian kingdoms. In 1529 Baber subdued the last major resistance in northern India. A descendant of the first Mongol conqueror, Genghis Khan, Baber was born on Feb. 15, 1483. His original name was Zahir - ud -Din Muhammad. His prose memoirs, the 'Babur- nameh ', were translated from Turki into Persian (1589) in Akbar's reign, and later into English (1921-22). His poems and diaries show him to be a man of wit, generosity, and culture. He died in Agra, India, on Dec. 26, 1530 .

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HUMAYUN Babur's son Humayun succeeded him in 1530, but was defeated by Sher Shah, an Afghan who ruled north India for 15 years, in 1540. Humayun only just managed to regain his father's territories before his death and the accession of his 13 year old son, Akbar, whose 49 year reign laid the foundation of empire, and the development of a new style of architecture. He succeeded his father in India in 1530, while his half-brother Kamran Mirza , who was to become a rather bitter rival, obtained the sovereignty of Kabul and Lahore , the more northern parts of their father's empire. He originally ascended the throne at the age of 22 and was somewhat inexperienced when he came to power. Humayun lost Mughal territories to them 15 years later. Humayun's return from Persia, accompanied by a large retinue of Persian noblemen, signaled an important change in Mughal court culture, as the Central Asian origins of the dynasty were largely overshadowed by the influences of Persian .

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AKBAR AKBAR (1542-1605). The Mughal Empire ruled India for about 200 years, from 1526 through the early part of the 18th century. The Mughals were a Muslim power governing a basically Hindu country, but the greatest of their emperors, Akbar, managed to enlist the cooperation of Hindu leaders in conquering and governing virtually the whole of the Indian subcontinent. Akbar was born in the province of Sind (now in Pakistan) on Oct. 15, 1542. He was a descendant of the great Mongol conquerors, Genghis Khan and Timur Lenk (Tamerlane). Akbar's father, Humayun, had a very weak hold on his throne and was, in fact, driven from it for a period of more than ten years. He returned to power in 1555, only to die a year later. It was left to the young Akbar to consolidate the power of the monarchy and extend Mughal rule over India from his base in Punjab. This he did in a series of campaigns from 1561 to 1601 .

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jahangir The Mughal administration functioned well under his son Jehangir from 1605 to 1627. There was not a great deal of architectural activity during Jehangir's reign, with one exception. This was the tomb Jehangir and his wife Nur Jahan built for Nur Jahan's father, Itimad-ud-Daulah , who was Jehangir's most important courtier. While the structure itself is fairly simple, the manner in which it has been carved and inlaid with semi-precious stones demonstrates the mastery over this craft which was to find such perfect expression in the Taj Mahal. Lapis lazuli, onyx, jasper, topaz, and carnelian have been combined with marble of various hues to create designs of unsurpassed elegance, interspread with finely carved screens. Jahangir died on the way back from Kashmir near Sarai Saadabad in 1627 .

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Shah jahan SHAH JAHAN (1592-1666). The Taj Mahal, one of the most beautiful structures in the world, was built by Shah Jahan as a mausoleum for his wife, Arjumand Banu Begum. Shah Jahan was the Mughal emperor of India from 1628 until 1658. The Mughals were an Islamic dynasty that ruled large parts of India from the early 16th century until the middle of the 18th. Shah Jahan was the third son of the emperor Jahangir and a grandson of the emperor Akbar. He was born in Lahore on Jan. 5, 1592. In 1612, when his title was still Prince Khurram, he married Arjumand Banu Begum. He was ambitious to gain the throne, though he was third in line. In 1622 he staged an unsuccessful rebellion against his father. Shah Jahan's reign was notable for its military successes against states in southern India. There was also a temporary extension of Mughal power in the northwest. In 1638 the Persian governor of Kandahar surrendered that fortress to the Mughals. In 1646 Shah Jahan's forces occupied Badakhshan and Balkh, but Balkh was lost the next year. The Persians regained Kandahar in 1649.

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AURANGZEB Reigning from 1658 to 1707, Aurangzeb was a stern puritan and a religious bigot who sought to impose orthodox Islam on all of India. He dismissed Hindus from public service, reimposed tax on them, and destroyed their temples. Aurangzeb spent the latter half of the reign trying to conquer southern India. Although he brought the Mughal Empire to its greatest extent, his wars helped weld the Marathas into a powerful enemy and exhausted imperial resources. Although patronage declined after the reign of Shah Jehan , elaborate architectural projects were undertaken for later Mughal rulers. Soon after Aurangzeb's death the empire broke up. The 19th. and last Mughal ruler, Bahadur Shah II was deposed by the British in 1858.

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