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Mesopotamia: “The Cradle of Civilization”

Earliest Civilization: the Fertile Crescent : 

Earliest Civilization: the Fertile Crescent earliest of all civilizations as people formed permanent settlements Mesopotamia is a Greek word that means “between the rivers”, specifically, the area between the Tigris River and Euphrates River (present day Iraq) Lasted for approximately 3000 years Its peoples were the first to irrigate fields, devised a system of writing, developed mathematics, invented the wheel and learned to work with metal

Geographic Conditions : 

Geographic Conditions Little rainfall Hot and dry climate windstorms leaving muddy river valleys in winter catastrophic flooding of the riversin spring Arid soil containing little minerals No stone or timber resources

Then why live in Mesopotamia? : 

Then why live in Mesopotamia? NATURAL LEVEES: embankments produced by build-up of sediment over thousands of years of flooding

Natural Levee : 

Natural Levee create a high and safe flood plain make irrigation and canal construction easy provide protection the surrounding swamps were full of fish & waterfowl reeds provided food for sheep / goats reeds also were used as building resources

History of Mesopotamia : 

History of Mesopotamia Over the centuries, many different people lived in this area creating a collection of independent states Sumer- southern part (3500-2000 BCE) Akkad- northern part (2340 – 2180 BCE) Babylonia- these two regions were unified (1830-1500 BCE and 650-500 BCE) Assyria- Assyrian Empire (1100 -612 BCE)

Religion : 

Religion Position of King was enhanced and supported by religion Kingship believed to be created by gods and the king’s power was divinely ordained Belief that gods lived on the distant mountaintops Each god had control of certain things and each city was ruled by a different god Kings and priests acted as interpreters as they told the people what the god wanted them to do (ie. by examining the liver or lungs of a slain sheep) gods were worshipped at huge temples called ziggurats Polytheistic religion consisting of over 3600 gods and demigods Prominent Mesopotamian gods Enlil (supreme god & god of air) Ishtar (goddess of fertility & life) An (god of heaven) Enki (god of water & underworld) Shamash (god of sun and giver of law)

Ziggurats : 

Ziggurats Large temples dedicated to the god of the city Made of layer upon layer of mud bricks in the shape of a pyramid in many tiers(due to constant flooding and from belief that gods resided on mountaintops) Temple on top served as the god’s home and was beautifully decorated Inside was a room for offerings of food and goods Temples evolved to ziggurats- a stack of 1-7 platforms decreasing in size from bottom to top Famous ziggurat was Tower of Babel (over 100m above ground and 91m base) Ziggurat of Ur -2000BCE

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Political structure an early form of democracy Frequent wars led to the emergence of warriors as leaders Eventually rise of monarchial system co-operation was the basis of government Followed leadership of god of the city which was interpreted by a council of leading citizens > or > priests > or leader of the city (ie. king) Government

Sumerians : 

Sumerians social, economic and intellectual basis Irrigated fields and produced 3 main crops (barley, dates and sesame seeds) built canals, dikes, dams and drainage systems develop cuneiform writing invented the wheel Abundance of food led to steady increase of population (farm, towns, cities) first city of the world Developed a trade system with bartering: mainly barley but also wool and cloth for stone, metals, timber, copper, pearls and ivory Individuals could only rent land from priests (who controlled land on behalf of gods); most of profits of trade went to temple However, the Sumerians were not successful in uniting lower Mesopotamia

Akkadians : 

Akkadians Leader: Sargon the Great Sargon unified lower Mesopotamia (after conquering Sumerians in 2331 BCE) Established capital at Akkad Spread Mesopotamian culture However, short-lived dynasty as Akkadians were conquered by the invading barbarians by 2200 BCE

Babylonians : 

Babylonians KING HAMMURABI’S BABLYON (6th Amorite king) who conquered Akkad and Assyria (north and south) He build new walls to protect the city and new canals and dikes to improve crops Economy based on agriculture and wool / cloth individuals could own land around cities Artisans and merchants could keep most profits and even formed guilds / associations Grain used as the medium of exchange > emergence of measurement of currency: shekel = 180 grains of barley; mina = 60 shekels Mina was eventually represented by metals which was one of first uses of money (but it was still based on grain) Hammurabi’s Legacy: law code Babylonians reunited Mesopotamia in 1830 BCE central location dominated trade and secured control YET AGAIN, Mesopotamia was not unified for long…

Code of Hammurabi : 

Code of Hammurabi To enforce his rule, Hammurabi collected all the laws of Babylon in a code that would apply everywhere in the land Most extensive law code from the ancient world (c. 1800 BCE) Code of 282 laws inscribed on a stone pillar placed in the public hall for all to see Hammurabi Stone depicts Hammurabi as receiving his authority from god Shamash Set of divinely inspired laws; as well as societal laws Punishments were designed to fit the crimes as people must be responsible for own actions Hammurabi Code was an origin to the concept of “eye for an eye…” ie. If a son struck his father, the son’s hand would be cut off Consequences for crimes depended on rank in society (ie. only fines for nobility)

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10th century BCE, Assyria emerged as dominant force in the north City of Assur- became important trading and political centre After Hammurabi’s death, Babylon fell apart and kings of Assur controlled more of surrounding area and came to dominate Made conquered lands pay taxes (food, animals, metals or timber) Rule by fear as kings were first to have a permanent army made up of professional soldiers (estimated 200 000 men) Made superior weapons of bronze and iron iron changed lifestyles in Mesopotamia in weapons and in daily life ie. replaced wooden wheels and applied to horse drawn chariots Assyrians Assyrian reunited Mesopotamia and established the first true empire However, states began to revolt and ONCE AGAIN, Assyrian Empire collapsed by late 7th century BCE By 539 BCE, Mesopotamia part of the vast Persian Empire (led by Cyrus the Great) Persian Empire dominated for 800 years until Alexander the Great

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Development Of WRITING

Development of Writing : 

Development of Writing Click here to see the development of writingfrom pictograms to cuneiform Pictograms: picture to show meaning Ideograms: signs to represent words / ideas Phonetics: signs to represent sounds *Phonetics are the basis of most writing systems

Writing : 

Writing Greatest contribution of Mesopotamia to western civilization was the invention of writing allowed the transmission of knowledge, the codification of laws, records to facilitate trade / farming Sumerians wrote on wet clay tablets with the point of a reed > then dried in the sun to make a tablet Scribes were only ones who could read and write and served as priests, record keepers and accountants As society evolved, the first form of writing was developed called CUNEIFORM (meaning “wedge shaped”), dating to 3500 BCE Cuneiform spread to Persia and Egypt and became the vehicle for the growth and spread of civilization and the exchange of ideas among cultures

Gilgamesh : 

Gilgamesh Gilgamesh is an ancient story or epic written in Mesopotamia more than 4000 thousand years ago Gilgamesh is the first known work of great literature and epic poem Epic mentions a great flood Gilgamesh parallels the Nippur Tablet, a six-columned tablet telling the story of the creation of humans and animals, the cities and their rulers, and the great floodANALYSIS Gilgamesh and the Nippur tablet both parallel the story of Noah and the Ark (great flood) in the Old Testament of the Jewish and Christian holy books Modern science argues an increase in the sea levels about 6,000 years ago (end of ice age) the melting ice drained to the oceans causing the sea level to rise more than ten feet in one century

Royal Tombs of Ur : 

Royal Tombs of Ur From 1922 to 1934, excavation of the ancient Sumerian city of Ur City famed in Bible as the home of patriarch Abraham discoveries such as extravagant jewelry of gold, cups of gold and silver, bowls of alabaster, and extraordinary objects of art and culture opened the world's eyes to the full glory of ancient Sumerian culture Great Death Pit mass grave containing the bodies of 6 guards and 68 servants grave was a great funeral procession drank poison, choosing to accompany the kings and queens in the afterlife

Interesting Facts! : 

Interesting Facts! Mesopotamia, specifically Babylon used a mathematical system based on sixty as all their numbers were expressed as parts of or multiples of sixty Some parts of the ‘base-sixty’ system still remain today: 360 degrees in a circle, 60 seconds in a minute and 60 minutes in 1 hour Devised a calendar base on cycles of the moon (number of days between the appearance of two new moons was set as a month; 12 cycles made up a year

Who was the best? : 

Who was the best? Sumer Closely tied to environment Irrigation techniques for farming wheel Trade- bartering Writing- cuneiform Religion tied to government as priests and kings made decision for gods ziggurats Babylon Production of food through farming Private ownership of land vs ownership by the gods Developed mathematics and calendar system and system of units for currency Hammurabi’s law code Assyria Kings conquered lands to create empire of Assyria Cooler climate could produce crops with little irrigation Deposits of ore allowed for development and use of iron Assyrian army became most effective military force

Legacies of Mesopotamia : 

Legacies of Mesopotamia Revolutionary innovations emerged in Mesopotamia such as: codified laws ziggurats Cuneiform Irrigation Metal working, tools Trade transportation wheel Writing mathematics prosperous living based on large scale agriculture