Methods Of Persuasion

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Methods of Persuasion 16

Methods of Persuasion:

Methods of Persuasion Building credibility Using evidence Reasoning Appealing to emotions

Credibility:

Credibility The audience's perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic.

Ethos:

Ethos The name used by Aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as credibility.

Factors of Credibility :

Factors of Credibility Competence Character

Competence:

Competence How an audience regards a speaker’s intelligence, expertise, and knowledge of the subject.

Character:

Character How an audience regards a speaker’s sincerity, trustworthiness, and concern for the well-being of the audience.

Types of Credibility:

Types of Credibility Initial Derived Terminal

Initial Credibility:

Initial Credibility The credibility of a speaker before she or he starts to speak.

Derived Credibility:

Derived Credibility The credibility of a speaker produced by everything she or he says and does during the speech.

Terminal Credibility:

Terminal Credibility The credibility of a speaker at the end of the speech.

Tips for Enhancing Credibility:

Tips for Enhancing Credibility Explain your competence Establish common ground with your audience Deliver your speeches fluently, expressively, and with conviction

Logos:

Logos The name used by Aristotle for the logical appeal of a speaker. The two major elements of logos are evidence and reasoning.

Evidence:

Evidence Supporting materials used to prove or disprove something.

Tips for Using Evidence:

Tips for Using Evidence Use specific evidence Use novel evidence Use evidence from credible sources Make clear the point of your evidence

Reasoning:

Reasoning The process of drawing a conclusion on the basis of evidence.

Four Types of Reasoning:

Four Types of Reasoning Reasoning from specific instances Reasoning from principle Causal reasoning Analogical reasoning

Reasoning from Specific Instances:

Reasoning from Specific Instances Reasoning that moves from particular facts to a general conclusion.

Guidelines for Reasoning from Specific Instances:

Guidelines for Reasoning from Specific Instances Avoid hasty generalizations If your evidence does not justify a sweeping conclusion, qualify your argument Reinforce your argument with statistics or testimony

Reasoning from Principle:

Reasoning from Principle Reasoning that moves from a general principle to a specific conclusion.

Guidelines for Reasoning from Principle:

Guidelines for Reasoning from Principle Make sure listeners will accept your general principle Provide evidence to support your minor premise

Causal Reasoning:

Causal Reasoning Reasoning that seeks to establish the relationship between causes and effects.

Guidelines for Causal Reasoning:

Guidelines for Causal Reasoning Avoid the fallacy of false cause Do not assume that events have only a single cause

Analogical Reasoning:

Analogical Reasoning Reasoning in which a speaker compares two similar cases and infers that what is true for the first case is also true for the second.

Guidelines for Analogical Reasoning:

Guidelines for Analogical Reasoning Above all, make sure the two cases being compared are essentially alike

Fallacy:

Fallacy An error in reasoning.

Fallacies:

Fallacies Hasty generalization False cause Invalid analogy Red herring

Fallacies:

Fallacies Ad hominem Either-or Bandwagon Slippery slope

Hasty Generalization:

Hasty Generalization A fallacy in which a speaker jumps to a general conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence.

Hasty Generalization:

Hasty Generalization “Last year alone three members of our state legislature were convicted of corruption. We can conclude, then, that all of our state's politicians are corrupt.”

False Cause:

False Cause A fallacy in which a speaker mistakenly assumes that because one event follows another, the first event is the cause of the second.

False Cause:

False Cause “I'm sure the stock market will rise this year. It usually goes up when the American League wins the World Series.”

Invalid Analogy:

Invalid Analogy An analogy in which the two cases being compared are not essentially alike.

Invalid Analogy:

Invalid Analogy “Of course Lisheng can prepare great Italian food; his Chinese cooking is fabulous.”

Red Herring:

Red Herring A fallacy that introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion.

Red Herring :

Red Herring “Why should we worry about endangered animal species when thousands of people are killed in automobile accidents each year?”

Ad Hominem:

Ad Hominem A fallacy that attacks the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute.

Ad Hominem :

Ad Hominem “The governor has a number of interesting economic proposals, but let’s not forget that she comes from a very wealthy family.”

Either-Or:

Either-Or A fallacy that forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist.

Either-Or:

Either-Or “The government must either raise taxes or reduce services for the poor.”

Bandwagon:

Bandwagon A fallacy that assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable.

Bandwagon :

Bandwagon “The President must be correct in his approach to domestic policy; after all, polls show that 60 percent of the people support him.”

Slippery Slope:

Slippery Slope A fallacy that assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented.

Slippery Slope :

Slippery Slope “Passing federal laws to control the amount of violence on television is the first step in a process that will result in absolute government control of the media and total censorship over all forms of artistic expression.”

Emotional Appeals:

Emotional Appeals Appeals that are intended to make listeners feel sad, angry, guilty, afraid, happy, proud, sympathetic, reverent, or the like.

Pathos:

Pathos The name used by Aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as emotional appeal.

Tips for Generating Emotional Appeal:

Tips for Generating Emotional Appeal Use emotional language Develop vivid examples Speak with sincerity and conviction

Using Emotional Appeal Ethically:

Using Emotional Appeal Ethically Make sure emotional appeal is appropriate to the speech topic Do not substitute emotional appeal for evidence and reasoning