public speaking ppt.

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lesson about public speaking

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English Language Proficiency Program:

English Language Proficiency Program English for Specific Purposes (Steamfitters/Pipe-fitters)

Introduction:

Introduction The English Language English is a West Germanic language originating in England , and the first language for most people in Australia , Canada , the Commonwealth Caribbean , Ireland , New Zealand , the United Kingdom and the United States of America (also commonly known as the Anglosphere ).

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Cont. It is used extensively as a second language and as an official language throughout the world, especially in Commonwealth countries and in many international organisations .

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Cont. A working knowledge of English is required in certain fields, professions, and occupations. As a result over a billion people speak English at least at a basic level

Uses of English:

Uses of English English for News and Information English is commonly used as a medium for the communication of information and news. Eighty percent of computer data are processed and stored in English.

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Cont. Much satellite communication is carried in English . Because of the power of television, demonstrators in every country use signs printed in English for the benefit of the international press.

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Cont. English for Business, Diplomacy, and the Professions English is a major language of international business, diplomacy, and science and the professions. It is also an official language, or the official language, of many international organizations.

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Cont. English is a widespread and important language in the world today. It is used not only for communication between native speakers and nonnative speakers of English but between nonnative speakers.

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Cont. Even though it does not have the greatest number of speakers in the world, it is the most widely used language in the world, and it will be used by more people in the future.

The Different Parts of Speech:

The Different Parts of Speech NOUN PRONOUN VERB ADJECTIVE ADVERB PREPOSITION CONJUNCTION INTERJECTION

Other Topics:

Other Topics Sentence Spelling Rules American English Vs. British English

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Cont. Listening Skills Reading Skills Writing Skills Speaking Skills

Noun:

Noun Definition Classifications of Noun

What is a Noun?:

What is a Noun? A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea. Person

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Cont. Place

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Cont. thing

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Cont. Or idea

Classifications of Noun:

Classifications of Noun Common Nouns Proper Nouns Concrete Nouns Abstract Nouns Countable Nouns Non-Countable Nouns Collective Nouns

Common Nouns :

Common Nouns A common noun is a noun referring to a person, place, or thing in a general sense; Usually, you should write it with a capital letter only when it begins a sentence.

Common noun…:

Common noun… Examples: Many construction workers are assigned to different projects . The foreman instructed the pipe fitter to cut the pipes.

Common noun…:

Common noun… In the examples given, the common nouns are: workers foreman pipe fitter pipes

Proper Nouns:

Proper Nouns A proper noun represents the name of a specific person, place, or thing; It is always written with a capital letter.

Proper nouns..:

Proper nouns.. A proper noun is the opposite of a common noun. Examples: Filipino pipe fitters usually work in Canada .

Proper nouns..:

Proper nouns.. In the example, the proper nouns are; Filipino Australia Canada

Concrete Nouns:

Concrete Nouns A concrete noun is a noun which names anything (or anyone) that you can perceive through your physical senses: touch………………. sight………………...

Concrete nouns…:

Concrete nouns… taste………………….. hearing……………………. smell………………

Concrete nouns…:

Concrete nouns… The highlighted words in the following sentences are all concrete nouns: There are different types of clips and clamps which are available to attach hanger rods to the structural shapes .

Abstract Nouns:

Abstract Nouns An abstract noun is a noun which names anything which you can not perceive through your five physical senses, and is the opposite of a concrete noun.

Abstract noun…:

Abstract noun… The highlighted words in the following sentences are all abstract nouns: The safety of the workers is the main concern of the employer.

Countable Nouns:

Countable Nouns A countable noun (or count noun ) is a noun with both a singular and a plural form; It names anything (or anyone) that you can count .

Countable nouns…:

Countable nouns… In each of the following sentences, the highlighted words are countable nouns: The anchor and the clamp are structural attachments devices.

Non-countable Nouns:

Non-countable Nouns A non-countable noun (or mass noun ) is a noun which does not have a plural form, and which refers to something that you could (or would) not usually count.

Non-countable Nouns:

Non-countable Nouns The highlighted words in the following sentences are non-countable nouns: Examples: Pipe fitters check the pipes for leaks ..

Collective Nouns:

Collective Nouns Collective Nouns A collective noun is a noun naming a group of things, animals, or persons. You could count the individual members of the group, but you usually think of the group as a whole is generally as one unit. You need to be able to recognise collective nouns in order to maintain subject-verb agreement. A collective noun is similar to a non-countable noun, and is roughly the opposite of a countable noun.

Collective Noun:

Collective Noun You need to be able to recognise collective nouns in order to maintain subject-verb agreement. A collective noun is similar to a non-countable noun, and is roughly the opposite of a countable noun.

Collective Noun:

Collective Noun In each of the following sentences, the highlighted word is a collective noun: Examples: A group of pipe fitters spend most of its time in the campsite.

Plural of Nouns:

Plural of Nouns The plural of nouns is generally formed by adding “s” to the singular: Singular Plural saw saws calculator calculators anchor anchors

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Cont. Add “es” to nouns ending in ch, s, sh, ss, x and z. Singular Plural bench benches gas gases wrench wrenches brush brushes

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Cont. brush brushes box boxes quiz quizzes

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Cont. Nouns ending in “y” preceded by a consonant change the “y” to “ies”., but if the “y” is preceded by a vowel, only “s” is added. Singular Plural country countries boy boys day days

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Cont. Most nouns ending in “o” preceded by a consonant take “es” in the plural. Singular Plural echo echoes potato potatoes hero heroes

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Cont. Nouns ending in “f” or “fe” drop the “f” or the “fe” and add “ves”. Singular Plural half halves knife knives self selves life lives

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Cont. Exceptions: Singular Plural cliff cliffs handkerchief handkerchiefs roof roofs

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Cont. Irregular Plural Singular Plural child children die dice foot feet woman women man men

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Cont. Compound Nouns 1. Normally, the last word is made lural in compound nouns: Singular Plural marking tool marking tools pipe cutter pipe cutters air compressor air compressors

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Cont. 2. Compounds finishing in “ful” take “s” Singular Plural handful handfuls spoonful spoonfuls

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Cont. Some nouns in English are used only in the singular form and so the verb remains in singular. Examples: accommodation advice furniture information knowledge news progress

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Cont. Some nouns have the same form for both plural and singular: Singular Plural deer deer fish fish series series sheep sheep

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Cont. The names of many sciences ending in “ics” are singular. The verb remains in singular form. Singular Plural Ethics Mathematics Phonetics Physics Statistics Genetics

Pronoun:

Pronoun What is a Pronoun? Kinds of Pronoun

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Cont. Personal Pronouns Subjective Personal Pronouns Objective Personal Pronouns Possessive Personal Pronouns Demonstrative Pronouns

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Cont. Interrogative Pronouns Relative Pronouns Indefinite Pronouns Reflexive Pronouns Intensive Pronouns

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Cont. A pronoun can replace a noun or another pronoun. You use pronouns like "he," "which," "none," and "you" to make your sentences less cumbersome and less repetitive. Example: The supervisor monitors the workers. The supervisor also evaluates his staff. The supervisor recommends workers for promotion.

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Cont. With pronouns, we can say: The supervisor monitors the workers. He also evaluates them . He also recommends workers for promotion.

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Cont. Kinds of Pronoun (1) Personal Pronouns A personal pronoun refers to a specific person or thing and changes its form to indicate person , number , gender , and case .

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Cont. In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is a subjective personal pronoun and acts as the subject of the sentence: I was assigned to grind the pipes. You are surely the best worker I have ever met.

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Cont. He studies blueprints. He does some maintenance work.. After six months, they returned to their homeland.

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Cont. We will meet at the construction site at 3:30 p.m. It is on the fabrication shop. Are you the pipe fitters from the Philippines?

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Cont. (2) Objective Personal Pronouns An objective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as an object of a verb , compound verb , preposition , or infinitive phrase .

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Cont. The objective personal pronouns are: "me," "you," "her," "him," "it," "us," "you," and "them."

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Cont. Examples: After reading the safety manual, Jude put it into the table. Give the list of materials to me .

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Cont. (3) Possessive Personal Pronouns A possessive pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as a marker of possession and defines who owns a particular object or person.

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Cont. The possessive personal pronouns are "mine," "yours," "hers," "his," "its," "ours," and "theirs." Note that possessive personal pronouns are very similar to possessive adjectives like "my," "her," and "their."

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Cont. In each of the following sentences, the highlighted word is a possessive personal pronoun: The smallest pipe is mine . This is yours. His is on the stock room.

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Cont. (4) Demonstrative Pronouns A demonstrative pronoun points to and identifies a noun or a pronoun. "This" and "these" refer to things that are nearby either in space or in time, while "that" and "those" refer to things that are farther away in space or

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Cont. The demonstrative pronouns are "this," "that," "these," and "those." "This" and "that" are used to refer to singular nouns or noun phrases and "these" and "those" are used to refer to plural nouns and noun phrases.

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Cont. Note that the demonstrative pronouns are identical to demonstrative adjectives , though, obviously, you use them differently. It is also important to note that "that" can also be used as a relative pronoun.

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Cont. In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is a demonstrative pronoun: This must not continue. This is; that is the tool I want to use. Three workers wanted these .

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Cont. (5) Interrogative Pronouns An interrogative pronoun is used to ask questions.

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Cont. The interrogative pronouns are "who," "whom," "which," "what" and the compounds formed with the suffix "ever" ("whoever," "whomever," "whichever," and "whatever").

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Cont. The highlighted word in each of the following sentences is an interrogative pronoun: Who wants to see the inspector first? Who wrote the Safety handbook?

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Cont. Whom do you think we should invite? Who will meet the trainer at the train station? To whom did you give the lay-out?

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Cont . (7) Relative Pronouns You can use a relative pronoun is used to link one phrase or clause to another phrase or clause. The relative pronouns are "who," "whom," "that," and "which." The compounds "whoever," "whomever," and "whichever" are also relative pronouns.

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Cont. In each of the following sentences, the highlighted word is a relative pronoun. You may invite whomever you like to the meeting. The candidate who wins the greatest popular vote is not always elected.

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Cont. (8) Indefinite Pronouns An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun referring to an identifiable but not specified person or thing. An indefinite pronoun conveys the idea of all, any, none, or some.

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Cont. The most common indefinite pronouns are "all," "another," "any," "anybody," "anyone," "anything," "each," "everybody," "everyone," "everything," "few," "many," "nobody," "none," "one," "several," "some," "somebody," and "someone." Note that some indefinite pronouns can also be used as indefinite adjectives .

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Cont. The highlighted words in the following sentences are indefinite pronouns : Many workers are assigned in the fabrication shop.

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Cont. (9) Reflexive Pronouns You can use a reflexive pronoun to refer back to the subject of the clause or sentence. The reflexive pronouns are "myself," "yourself," "herself," "himself," "itself," "ourselves," "yourselves," and "themselves." Note each of these can also act as an intensive pronoun.

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Cont. Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a reflexive pronoun: Richard usually remembered to send a copy of his e-mail to himself . Although there’s a helper, we ended up doing it ourselves .

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Cont. (9) Intensive Pronouns An intensive pronoun is a pronoun used to emphasise its antecedent . Intensive pronouns are identical in form to reflexive pronouns.

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Cont. The highlighted words in the following sentences are intensive pronouns: I myself believe that superiors should be respected. The Supervisor himself said that he would attend the ceremony.

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Cont. They themselves promised to come to the meeting even though it’s late in the evening.

Adjective:

Adjective An adjective is often defined as a word which describes or gives more information about a noun or pronoun . Adjectives describe nouns in terms of  such qualities as size, color, number, and kind.

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Cont. Example: A magnetic drill is a heavy-duty portable drill.

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Cont. Determiners Determiners are words like the , an , my , some . They are grammatically similar. They all come at the beginning of noun phrases, and usually we cannot use more than one determiner in the same noun phrase. Articles: a, an, the

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Cont. Articles: a, an, the Determiners: A, An or The? When do we say " the dog" and when do we say " a dog"? The and a/an are called "articles". We divide them into "definite" and "indefinite" like this:

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Cont. Articles Definite ( the ) Indefinite (a, an) We use "definite" to mean sure, certain. "Definite" is particular.

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Cont. We use "indefinite" to mean not sure, not certain. "Indefinite" is general. When we are talking about one thing in particular, we use the . When we are talking about one thing in general, we use a or an .

Three Questions.:

Three Questions. Adjectives usually answer three questions about the nouns they describe: 1. What kind of? I found a red bag in the site. What kind of bag? Red

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Cont. 2. How many? Three anchors, please. How many anchors? Three . 3. Which one(s)? I would use these bolt cutters. Which muffins? These .

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Cont. Kinds of adjectives. 1. Demonstrative adjective this, that, these, those are called demonstrative adjectives. They point out nouns. Example: When the inspector tripped over that cord, he dropped a pile of papers.

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Cont. This barracks needs to be fumigated. 2. Interrogative Adjectives An interrogative adjective (``which'' or ``what'') is like an interrogative pronoun, except that it modifies a noun or noun phrase rather than

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Cont. standing on its own. Examples: Which pipes should be checked twice a week? What blueprint are you reading?

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Cont. . 3. Adjectives An indefinite adjective is similar to an indefinite pronoun , except that it modifies a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase. Examples: Many people believe that pipefitting is not an easy job. I will send you any mail that arrives after you have moved to the campsite.

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Adjectives can change to show the degree of a quality. There are three degrees of comparison: the positive degree, the comparative degree, and the superlative degree.

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1. The positive degree is the simple form of adjective. In this degree, there is no comparison being made. I could scarcely see ahead of me in the dark construction site. Their meeting after fifty years was certainly emotional.

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2. The comparative degree of the adjective is when comparing two person or things. It shows that the quality expressed by the adjectives exists to a greater or to a lesser degree is one of the two being compared.

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The comparative degree of almost all one syllable adjectives is formed by adding er to the positive degree, or to the simple form of the adjective. If the adjective ends in y, change y, to i before adding er. Some adjectives change in the word of the form of the word. In others, you may need to prefix such comparative words as more and less.

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Jaime has a sharper mind than his father. His clumps is better than mine

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The superlative degree is used to compare more than two things. It indicates that the quality expressed by the adjectives is possessed to the greater or to the least degree by one of the persons or things included in the comparison.

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Leo has the sharpest mind in the class. His clumps is the best.

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The superlative degree of almost all adjectives of one syllable is formed by adding est to the positive degree, or to the simple form of the adjectives. If the adjective ends in y, change y to i before adding est . Some adjectives change in the form of the word. In others, you may need to prefix such comparative words as most and least.

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Positive Comparative Superlative Bad worse worst Big better biggest Comfortable more comfortable most comfortable Fat fatter fattest Fine finer finest Fragrant less fragrant least fragrant

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He is tall athletically built pipe-fitter. Experts agree that regular exercise program will increase in oxygen intake to the brain. Filipinos are the best pipe-fitters

Verbs:

Verbs Definition Classification Forms Main Verbs Helping Verbs Basic Tenses Subject-Verb Agreement

Verbs:

Verbs Verbs are sometimes described as "action words". Many verbs give the idea of action, of "doing" something. For example , words like study , measure , cut and bend all convey action.

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Cont. But some verbs do not give the idea of action; they give the idea of existence, of state, of "being". For example, verbs like be, exist, seem and belong all convey state.

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Cont. A verb always has a subject. "John speaks English“. John is the subject and speaks is the verb.

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Cont. action (Ram cuts pipes.) state (Anthony seems busy.)

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Cont. There is something very special about verbs in English. Most other words (adjectives, adverbs, prepositions etc) do not change in form (although nouns can have singular and plural forms). But almost all verbs change in form.

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Cont. For example, the verb to work has five forms: to work work, works worked working

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Cont. Verb Classification 1. Helping Verbs 2. Main Verbs

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Cont. 1. Helping Verbs Example: I can . People must . The building will .

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Cont. Helping verbs have no meaning on their own. They are necessary for the grammatical structure of the sentence, but they do not tell us very much alone. We usually use helping verbs with main verbs. They "help" the main verb.

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Cont. 2. Main Verbs I assemble . Workers test . The pipe fitters remove .

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Cont. We must go now. Main verb Helping verb

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Cont. Primary helping verbs (3 verbs) These are the verbs be , do , and have .

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Cont. be to make continuous tenses Ex. He is measuring the pipe. to make the passive Ex. The pipes are cut by the worker.

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Cont. have to make perfect tenses Ex. I have finished my task.

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Cont. do to make negatives Ex. I do not absent. to ask questions Ex. Do you want to test the equipment ?

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Cont. to show emphasis Ex. I do want you to pass your exam. to stand for a main verb in some constructions Ex. He grinds faster than he does .

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Cont. Modal helping verbs (10 verbs) A modal helping verb expresses necessity or possibility, and changes the main verb in that sense.

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Cont. These are the modal verbs : can, could may, might will, would, shall, should must ought to

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Cont. Here are examples using modal verbs: I can't absent myself. John may arrive early.

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Cont. Would you like to use a hand tool? You should see your foreman. I really must go now.

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cont. Main Verbs Transitive and intransitive verbs A transitive verb takes a direct object: Example: Somebody secured the pipes. verb direct object

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cont. An intransitive verb does not have a direct object: He fell .

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Cont. Linking verbs A linking verb does not have much meaning in itself. It "links" the subject to what is said about the subject. Usually, a linking verb shows equality (=) or a change to a different state or place (>). Linking verbs are always intransitive (but not all intransitive verbs are linking verbs).

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Cont. Examples: Jose is a pipe fitter. (Jose = pipe fitter) Jose is hardworking. (Jose= hardworking) That sounds interesting. (that = interesting)

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Cont. Regular verbs the past tense ending and past participle ending is always the same: -ed.

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Cont. regular verbs: base past tense past participle install installed installed

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Cont. Irregular verbs: the past tense ending and the past participle ending is variable, so it is necessary to learn them by heart.

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Cont. base past tense past participle bend bent bent cut cut cut

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Cont. List of Regular Verbs assemble test install secure use mark braze measure clean examine plan repair

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Cont. List of Irregular Verbs lay cut thread build break bend bring draw do read keep take

Basic Tenses of the Verb:

Basic Tenses of the Verb What is Tense? Tense is a method that we use in English to refer to time— past , present and future . Many languages use tenses to talk about time. Other languages have no tenses, but of course they can still talk about time, using different methods.

Basic Tenses….:

Basic Tenses…. In English, there are three basic tenses : present, past, and future.

Basic Tenses…:

Basic Tenses… Present Tense Present tense expresses an unchanging, repeated, or reoccurring action or situation that exists only now. It can also represent a widespread truth.

Basic Tenses…:

Basic Tenses… Examples: Canada is in need of skilled workers. Every year, Philippines deploys new workers. Ottawa is the capital of Canada.

Basic Tenses…:

Basic Tenses… Past Tense Past tense expresses an action or situation that was started and finished in the past. Most past tense verbs end in -ed . The irregular verbs have special past tense forms which must be memorized.

Basic Tenses…:

Basic Tenses… The oil and gas project ended in 2006. Mr. Goodman wrote the safety manual.

Basic Tenses…:

Basic Tenses… Future Tense Future tense expresses an action or situation that will occur in the future. This tense is formed by using will / shall with the simple form of the verb.

Basic Tenses…:

Basic Tenses… Examples: This tense is formed by using will / shall with the simple form of the verb. The workers will finish their contract in December of 2010.

Basic Tenses…:

Basic Tenses… The future tense can also be expressed by using am , is , or are with going to . Nilo is going to measure the pipes for cutting and threading.

Adverb:

Adverb Definition Function Kinds of Adverbs Adverbs of Time Adverbs of Manner Adverbs of Degree Adverbs of Place Adverbs of Frequency Interrogative Adverbs

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Cont. What is an adverb? HOW?, WHERE?, HOW OFTEN? TO WHAT EXTENT or DEGREE? Example: A hundred of pipes were delivered in the worksite last Monday extremely fast.

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Cont. What word in the example tells: WHEN the pipes were delivered? HOW the pipes were delivered? WHERE were the pipes delivered? TO WHAT DEGREE is the promptness of the delivery? WHAT word is being modified?

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Cont. Answer : last Monday Answer : fast Answer : in the worksite Answer : extremely Verb : delivered

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Cont. Proceed to the discussion about what other word or part of speech can an adverb modify. In other words: Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.

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Cont. Adverbs of time Adverbs of time are those which answer to the question, When? How long? How soon?

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Cont. Examples: Now, yet, to-day, nowadays, presently, instantly, immediately, straightway, directly, forthwith. Already, just now, lately, recently, yesterday, formerly, anciently, once, heretofore, hitherto, since, till now, long ago, erewhile, erst

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Cont. Adverbs of manner. Adverbs of manner are those which answer to the question, How?

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Cont. Examples: Well, ill, wisely, foolishly, justly, wickedly, and many others formed by adding ly to adjectives of quality. -ly is a contraction of like; and is the most common termination of English adverb.

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Cont. Adverbs of degree Adverbs of degree are those which answer to the question, How much? How little? or, to the idea of more or less.

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Cont. Examples: enough, sufficiently, competently, adequately, proportionally, equally, so, as, even, just, exactly, precisely.

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Cont. Adverbs of place Some adverbs indicate where something happens. These include; abroad, anywhere, here, outside, somewhere, there, underground, upstairs ...

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Cont. Examples : near off under nearby up on top of next to out outside over to towards

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Cont. Adverbs of Frequency answers the question how often? Examples: My wife writes to me weekly . She visits me every month. My wrench never break down.

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Cont. Interrogative Adverbs asks a question Examples: When are you going home? Where are you now? How many times have you read the manual?

Subject Verb Agreement:

Subject Verb Agreement The subject and verb must agree in number: both must be singular, or both must be plural.

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Cont. Problems occur in the present tense because one must add an -s or -es at the end of the verb when the subjects or the entity performing the action is a singular third person: he , she , it , or words for which these pronouns could substitute.

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Cont. Basic Rule If a subject is singular, its verb must also be singular; If a subject is plural, its verb must also be plural.

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Cont. Examples: He measures pipes. They measure pipes.

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Cont. Rule 1. Two singular subjects connected by or or nor require a singular verb. Example: The supervisor or the foreman is arriving by train today.

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Cont. Rule 2. Two singular subjects connected by either/or or neither/nor require a singular verb as in Rule 1. Examples: Neither Juan nor Mario is available. Either John or Michael is helping today with camp site renovation.

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Cont. Rule 3. As a general rule, use a plural verb with two or more subjects when they are connected by and . Example: An angle finder and a punch are pipe fitter’s tools.

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Cont. Rule 4 Indefinite pronouns one, no one, anyone, everyone, someone, anybody, nobody, everybody, somebody, each, either, and neither are always singular and take a singular verb. Each of the workers interprets the blueprint differently.

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Rule 5 Indefinite pronouns several, few, both and many are always plural. A few were supporting us

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Cont. Rule 6. A collective noun presents a group of people or objects as a single unit. We use collective nouns to represent things that are not usually counted as single items: committee, family, class.

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Cont. Unless the sentence clearly draws attention to the individual members or parts of a collective noun, use the singular form of the verb

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Cont. Example: Sometimes the class complains about the amount of readings.

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Rule 7. Words like pants, pliers, scissors, and tongs are plural and take a plural verb. When the word pair is used as the subject, the subject is regarded as singular and takes a singular verb.

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Cont. Examples: These scissors are mine A pair of scissors is all I need.

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Rule 8. A plural noun that’s shows weight, extent or quantity is singular, and takes a singular verb.

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Cont. Examples: Ten kilometer is a long distance to walk. Fifty kilograms is a heavy load One million pesos is the price of a brand new car.

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Rule 9. When the word number is preceded by the article a, it takes a plural verb ; however, when it is immediately preceded by the article the, it takes a singular verb .

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Cont. Examples: A number of doctors are waiting for you. The number of doctors waiting inside is small.

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Rule 10. Usually, the name of a firm is often regarded as singular even when there is a plural form in the title.

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Cont. Examples: Sunspots, a company distributing pipes, has opened many branches in the Philippines.

Preposition:

Preposition Study the following sentences: The wrench is on the table. The wrench is beneath the table. The wrench is leaning against the table.

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Cont. The wrench is beside the table. He held the wrench over the table. He used the wrench during work time. In each of the preceding sentences, a preposition locates the noun “wrench" in space or in time.

Preposition:

Preposition What is a Preposition? A preposition links nouns , pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence . The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition. A preposition is a connecting word placed before a noun or pronoun to show its relation to other words in the sentence.

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Cont. above at by into toward about before down like through across behind during near under after below except of until against beneath for off up among between in since with around but inside to within on from on top of in front of underneath

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Cont. The Correct Use of Prepositions 1. Around means encircling. About often means approximately. Do not use around when you mean approximately.

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Examples: The wrench costs about P1,500. He weighed about 200 pounds. You can tie a rope around its belly.

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Besides means by the side of. Besides means in addition to. Examples: Can Ramon sit besides you? There were others besides Eric and Emil in the site.

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Between is used when referring to two. Among is used when referring to more than two. Examples: Francis and Alex divided their work between them. The 42 pipefitters divided the money among themselves.

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The preposition in indicates location or motion within a place. Into indicates motion toward the inside from the outside. Examples: The swimmer jumped into the pool. (motion from the outside) He is swimming in the pool. (motion within a place)

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Over expresses the idea of place. More than expresses the idea of quantity. Examples: The box contains more than one hundred clamps. Armand jumps over the fence.

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Do not say in regards to or with regards to . The correct expressions are in regard to and with regard to. Example: In regard to your request, we are sending the package.

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Situation: A foreman is giving a pipefitter some errands to do in town; the pipefitter is new to the area and does not know yet his way around. Create your own map Use at least 15 prepositions

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There are so many things to do Jessie, but you’d better take this map so that you don’t get lost, and you can mark on it where you have to go. When you come out of the house, turn left and go down to the junction, Turn right, go past the swimming pool and you’ll come to Main Street. There you turn left and go along the street, over the bridge. On the other side of the bridge there’s a crossroads; if you go straight across it, you’ll find the shopping center on your left. Go in there and buy the things on my list.

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When you come out again, look for Turton Road, and go along it to the end. You’ll see a the Elton Mall ahead of you. Go in there and buy two wrenches. From the Elton Mall, turn left towards the river, and go until you come the Riverside Road. There you turn left and then immediately right again over the bridge. On the other side of the bridge you’ll find a park on your right and then a little further along there’s site on a corner to your left.

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Please go in there look for Jaime and hand him the wrenches. Then you can come home along School Road – go all the way along it until you get to Main Street again, which you cross, and you’ll find a little path behind the swimming pool; it’s a shortcut home.

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Out of to Down Ahead of Along From Over Towards On For Across Behind

Conjunction:

Conjunction You can use a conjunction to link words, phrases , and clauses , as in the following Example: I used the dust mask and breathing apparatus during work.

Conjunction…:

Conjunction… Definition Kinds of Conjunction Coordinating conjunctions Subordinating conjunctions Correlative conjunctions

Cont.:

Cont. A conjunction is a word that connects other words or groups of words . Example: Bob and Dan are skilled workers. He will go or not. It is early but we can go .

Kinds of Conjunction:

Kinds of Conjunction Coordinating conjunctions are conjunctions which connect two equal parts of a sentence. The most common ones are and, or, but, and so.

Cont.:

Cont. and is used to join or add words together in the sentence Example: They rested and slept.

Cont.:

Cont. or is used to show choice or possibilities as in the sentence Example: He will be here on Monday or Tuesday.

Cont.:

Cont. but is used to show opposite or conflicting ideas as in the sentence Example: He is small but skillful.

Cont.:

Cont. so is used to show result in the sentence Example: I passed the test so I got the Red Seal.

Cont.:

Cont. (2) Subordinating conjunctions connect two parts of a sentence that are not equal.

Cont.:

Cont. Some of the more common subordinating conjunctions such as: after          before                unless although          if                 until

Cont.:

Cont. as               since               when because          than             while

Cont.:

Cont. Example: Ram went working although it was raining.

Cont.:

Cont. (3) Correlative conjunctions are pairs of conjunctions that work together. Example: Both Elmer and Adel are good pipe fitters.

Cont.:

Cont. The most common correlative conjunctions are: both . . .and either . . . or neither . . . nor not only . . . but also

Interjection:

Interjection What is an Interjection? An interjection is a word added to a sentence to convey emotion. It is not grammatically related to any other part of the sentence. You usually follow an interjection with an exclamation mark . Interjections are uncommon in formal academic prose, except in direct quotations.

Cont.:

Cont. You usually follow an interjection with an exclamation mark . Interjections are uncommon in formal academic prose, except in direct quotations .

Cont.:

Cont. The highlighted words in the following sentences are interjections: Ouch , that hurt! Oh no , I forgot that the exam was today. Hey ! Put that down!

Cont.:

Cont. I heard one guy say to another guy, "He has a new tool, eh ?" I don't know about you but, good lord , I think taxes are too high!

Simple Present Tense:

Simple Present Tense The simple present tense encompasses the past, present and future time. It is used in place of the non- progressive verbs. USES To express general time In such use, the simple present tense is usually “timeless” It has no terminal points in time- it can include the past, present and the future. Often involves repetition- an event has been repeated before the present time and open to future repetition. The “ t imeless” time of the simple present is especially useful in general statements. Such general statements may range all the way from eternal truths to generalizations about the customs of single individuals.

Cont.:

Cont. Examples of general statements with the simple present follow. General truth - includes the law or principles of the physical and the social sciences. The earth revolves around the sun. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. People learn faster when their needs and interests are provided for.

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b. With an expression indicating frequency: The English frequently drink tea in the afternoon. The member of our club play tennis once a week. I always take my umbrella with me when it rains.

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c. Without an expression indicating frequency: Englishmen drink tea in the afternoon. The member of our club play tennis. I take my umbrella with me when it rains

Cont.:

Cont. 2. To express present time The simple present tense indicates present time with many non-action verbs, especially state or condition. Many of these verbs are durational without being limited by a beginning or an end. With LINKING VERBS: Be (is, are, was, were), seem, appear, look. He is an intelligent man. She seems to be very tired today. The man looks happy.

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b. With VERBS OF PERCEPTION: feel , taste, smell are used intransitively. The athlete feels not qualified foe the coming SEA games. The medicine tastes bitter. Roses smell sweeter than jasmine.

Cont.:

Cont. 3. To express present time with the verb indicating a mental state or condition A partial list of such verbs would include agree, believe, consider, guess, hesitate, imagine, know, prefer, realize, remember, suppose, trust, wish . Many of these verbs are followed by that noun clauses or by verbal phrases (infinitive or gerund). Included in group are verbs signifying fulfillment in the future: I hope that you can come. We expect to go there next week.

Cont.:

Cont. 4. To express present time with verb expressing an emotional state: admire, appreciate, care, like, love, regret, and trust. We love each other very much. He admires his father more than he will admit. I appreciate a good meal.

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5. To express present time with other non-action verbs Such verb include belong, contain, depend, equal, have, hold, indicate, mean, need, owe, require, resemble, tend. We need more chairs. I owe him ten dollars. This jar contains honey.

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6. Used in saying and telling He says that he can not come tonight. We suggest that you take warm clothes with you.

Cont.:

Cont. 8. To express historic present or in summaries of a story plot. The boy goes to the bank and deposits his money. The King addresses the soldier and asks them to fight bravely for their country. Goldilocks enters the room, sees tree bowls of porridge on the table, and goes over to taste the food.

SIMPLE PAST TENSE:

SIMPLE PAST TENSE SIMPLE PAST TENSE The past simple tense indicates that an action terminated in the past. It is required tense in statements about person who are dead (Allan lived in Canada), unless the statement has some relevance to the present( Allan is the greatest pipefitter in Canada) USES Event completed with definite past time I saw him last night. They left two hours ago. The word ago requires the use of the past tense, even if the time indicated comes almost up to the present- they left one minute ago.

Cont.:

Cont. 2. Repeated events completed in the past and no longer happening Last year it rained frequently in this area. (custom) When I was young, I went swimming everyday.

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3. Duration of an event completed in the past He lived in Canada for forty years and then he decided to return to Philippines. In Columbus’s day, people believed that the earth is flat.

Cont.:

Cont. 4. The simple past form used as subjunctive in if or as if clauses, and in that clauses after the verb wish. If he studied harder now, he would get better grades. He wishes she were rich instead of handsome.

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The simple past form is usually used in narrating past historical or biographical events. I grew up in postwar Hong Kong, cut off from the land of my ancestors and cast adrift from the network of familiar relationships in which Chinese children were raised : grandparents, uncles, aunts, cousins. Because my father had three wives, with different set of children living in separate households, I didn’t even know how many brothers and sisters I had until long after I became an adult.

Simple Future Tense:

Simple Future Tense SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE Future time, shall must be used with the first person I or we (and with you in questions expecting an answer in the first person); and will must be used with the second and third persons. For example: Eric will practice his piano lesson tonight. We shall be in school on Saturday.

Uses of WILL:

Uses of WILL Promise Intention Willingness Volition (=want to) Predictions Instructions Inclination, tendency (A general statement based on the past observation is made about the future)

Uses of SHALL:

Uses of SHALL In request-in the sense of do you want me (or us) to In legal or commercial usage In moral injunctions

THE PROGRESSIVE TENSES:

THE PROGRESSIVE TENSES “Progressive” implies on-going actions or conditions. There are three kinds of progressive tenses: the present progressive, past progressive, and future progressive.

PRESENT PROGRESSIVE:

PRESENT PROGRESSIVE five uses To express a single temporary event that has a beginning and an end This form suggest that an event began and is continuing, but it does not necessarily include the end of the action. The progressive form occurs mostly with verbs that denote limited duration ( work, study, attend ). However, it can also occur with verbs that express some stage in a progression– either the beginning, end or continuation of an action.

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Example: The play is beginning (or ending ) now. The book is getting ( or becoming ) more end more interesting. (continuation) Because of its ability to suggest action in progressive form often conveys vividness, emotion, or emphasis than the nonprogressive form does.

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2. Like the simple present tense, the present progressive tense may signal future time if its accompanied by a future question. The tickets are going on sale next week. The gardener is cutting the grass tomorrow. The present progressive tense generally indicates that the future action is part of a plan made in the present, with the past possibly included. It is more frequently used with verbs that can show the intention of the subject or that can indicate result of planning by some agent. Thus, we can say I’m giving a party tomorrow , but not it’s raining tomorrow. A few verbs may occur in either the progressive or the simple form of present tense, depending on the kind of emphasis desired.

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3. To emphasize the progression of one event He is planning (or hoping expecting ) to go to Canada. Where are you living now?—I’m living in Canada. How are you feeling ?– I’m feeling fine.

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.4 Sometimes the progressive is used in general statement to add a feeling of present action in progress: They enjoy listening to good music while they are eating (vs. eat) their dinner. Millions of people are watching (vs. watch) television every night.

PAST PROGRESSIVE:

PAST PROGRESSIVE USES: The past progressive form emphasizes the duration of one past event that has a possible beginning and ending. The midst of action is particularly stressed. What were you doing all day yesterday? When I arrived at the inn, the guest were already sitting down to dinner. The past progressive form may express duration of an event at one point in the past. What were you doing at eleven o’ clock last night? At eleven o’ clock last night I was sleeping soundly.

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2. The progressive form is required for a past action in progress which is or unexpectedly interrupted by another past . The implication is that the action in progress is not completed (at least momentarily) because of the interruption.

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Examples: I was crossing the street when I saw an accident. He was working when the telephone rang. He was finishing a late dinner when a guest arrived. 4. While I was crossing the street, I saw an accident

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3. In sentences referring to two past acts that are in progress simultaneously, the past progressive form may occur with both of the action in progress, with only one, or with neither. Examples: He was watching the television while his wife was washing the dishes. He was watching the television while his wife washed the dishes.

FUTURE PROGRESSIVE:

FUTURE PROGRESSIVE USES To express duration of a single future event. Examples: He will be working on that safety manual for a long time. He will be having trouble with his teeth all his life.

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2. To indicate that something will be in progress at a particular moment in the future. Examples: This time tomorrow, I’ ll be shopping in Robinsons. Good luck in your trip. I’ ll be praying for your safety. What will be doing tomorrow night at ten? I’ ll be sleeping soundly tomorrow night at that hour.

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3. The future progressive form often occurs when a word like soon relates the time of an event to the very near present. Soon the men will be working at this end of the building. We’ll be leaving for Canada soon. We’ll be writing to you about the matter presently. See and hear used in future progressive form have special meanings. I’ll be seeing you. (meaning I expect to meet you again. ) You will be hearing from us (meaning You will get a communication from us. ) In both these sentences the immediate future is understood.

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4. To predict the present or denote supposition. If I don’t get home soon, my wife will be waiting up for me and getting worried. Don’t go there now – they’ ll be waiting up for me and getting worried.

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5. To make polite inquiries Will you be staying here for the whole month? Will you be writing to me when you arrive there? In addition future tense, other means of expressing future time are the two forms of the present tense –simple and progressive – and be going to. We have already seen that the present tense often takes on future meaning from accompanying adverbial expressions of future time. Be going to is one of the most frequently used forms for indicating future time. It has stronger phonetic stress than shall or will , and is often the favored form in informal speech. Ike the present progressive form, be going to suggests a connection of future plans with the present time. When used with persons, this form expresses intention more strongly than many of the other means of indicating future time.

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She’s going to get married in June. The manager is going to close the store early tonight. When used with either persons or thing, be going to may also denote certainly and expectation. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Persons Look out. You’re going to fall off that fence. I think I’ m going to become sick. Things There’s going to be an eclipse of the moonlight tonight. It’s going to rain tomorrow. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ I

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE:

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE USES: In contrast with the past tense, which denotes definitely completed past times, the perfect present tense expresses indefinite time that begins in the past and extends to the present. It is a special kind of past time that ends with the moment of speaking. An event may continue beyond the present moment of speaking, but the statement is not concerned with this segment of time.

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ACTUAL PAST- TO- PRESENT TIME An actual event starts in the past and continues up to the present. He has worked in the same company for ten years.

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ACTUAL PAST- TO- PRESENT TIME The actual time represented by the present perfect usually involves duration of a single act that ends with the moment of speaking or shortly before it. The expressions of time that marks a past- to- present events are:.

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Prepositions indicating duration of the event that ends with the moment of speaking (actual time) a. During, in, over . He has remained calm during the whole crisis. . The population of this city has double in (or during ) the last ten years. . The car payments have been extended over a two- year period.

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Since, for. There are most common prepositions that express duration with the present perfect tense. Both these prepositions refer to the same past-to-present time span. Since gives the beginning point, for gives the entire of the past-to-present period.

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Thus, if a person who came to Canada in 2009 is speaking in 2011, he can say either. I have lived in Canada for two years . (with for , the extended time is expressed as a quantity, often with a numeral. Or I have lived in Canada since 2009. ( With since, the beginning point of an extended period is often expressed as a date.) Vs. I came to Canada two years ago.

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Since used as an adverb, or as a conjunction introducing a clause may also indicate the beginning point of an extended past-to-present period. Adverb: She had the flu last month. She has not felt well since. Conjunction: She has not felt well since she had a flu last month.

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2. Adverbial expressions meaning past-to-present time-- so far, up to now, up to the present We have finished five chapters so far . Up to now , we have not found the kind of paint we need for the job. We can also add here such expressions as all his/herlife,– He had lived in Canada all his life.

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PAST-TO-PRESENT The following adverbial expressions refer to frequency within an extended past-to-present period (psychological time). Frequency adverbs that involved repetition– always, often twice, sometimes, etc. He has always lived in the US. We have sometimes gone to the beach, but we have never enjoyed the trip. Such frequency words usually appear in general statements about the events that begins in the past.

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2. Recency of an event (actual time): just (non), already (or yet with negatives and questions), finally, still (negative only) He has just (now) come in. I haven’t seen that movie yet . The money has finally arrived. 3. Recently, lastly, of late, in recent years, etc. He has recently come out of the hospital. Lately, the news about the war has not been good. 4. Time expressions containing this– this week, this month, this year, this Saturday, this morning. He has been quite ill this year. They have gone shopping this morning.

JOB INTERVIEW:

JOB INTERVIEW The interview is your opportunity to show your employer the skills, experience and other information you indicated in your resume are for real. This is the moment to tell them that “I’m the person you’re looking for”

Before the interview:

Before the interview Learn as much as you can about the profile of the company. Friends and relatives who work for the company or organization are good source of information. Web sites are also helpful. Learn everything you can about the job and how your previous experience and training qualify you for the job.

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Develops a list of questions about the job and the employer. What are the job’s main duties? Think of possible questions that might be asked you based on the information you submitted and prepare adequate responses. Be relaxed before the interview.

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Be prepared, review your resume/job application before the interview to have it fresh in your mind. Practice either with yourself or with someone else. With a mirror before you, practice your facial expressions, greetings, posture, seating, expressions, etc. have someone ask questions as if he or she was the interviewer.

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Dress for the interview. Formal dress/corporate attire is necessary. Don’t be overdress or look too informal. Be clean and well groomed.

During the interview:

During the interview Always go to an interview alone. Go to an interview on time (about 15 minutes earlier) Greet positively. Start an interview with a firm shake (not too hard) and direct eye contact. Observe proper posture. Don’t slouch or recline on the backrest. Avoid crossing your arms as this might indicate that you’re resisting or protecting yourself.

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Speak clearly and without hesitation. Express your interest in the job and in the company or organization. Speak with confidence and be positive. Show how your experience and training will quickly make you productive with minimal supervision.

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Show willingness to learn. Ask questions about the thing you really need to know. Speak positively. End the interview with a firm shake. Thank the employer for the interview and reaffirm your interest and qualifications for the job.

DRESS UP PROPERLY DURING THE INTERVIEW.:

DRESS UP PROPERLY DURING THE INTERVIEW. For MEN: Necktie should be silk with conservative pattern Dark shoes Dark socks Get a haircut; short hair are always best in interviews Mustaches are sometimes negative, but make sure it is neat and trimmed. No rings other than wedding ring or college ring.

Sample Questions:

Sample Questions How long did you work from your previous company? Why do you want to work in our company? What makes you qualify from the rest of the applicants? Give me 3 good reasons why we will hire you? What possible contributions could you give if you will be hired in this company? Let say we hired someone instead and that person fails to perform. Do you think we should hire you? Why?

Speak English Now!:

Speak English Now! Constant practice makes YOU Perfect!

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