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PowerPoint Presentation:

Chapter 12 National Income Accounting and the Balance of Payments

Chapter Organization:

2 Chapter Organization The National Income Accounts National Income Accounting for an Open Economy The Balance of Payment Accounts

The National Income Accounts:

3 The National Income Accounts Gross national product (GNP) The value of all final goods and services produced by a country’s factors of production and sold on the market in a given time period GNP calculation Consumption Investment Government purchases Current account balance

The National Income Accounts:

4 National Product and National Income National Income It is earned over a period by its factors of production. It must equal the GNP a country generates over some period of time. One person’s spending is another’s income (i.e., total spending must equal total income). The National Income Accounts

The National Income Accounts:

5 Capital Depreciation, International Transfers, and Indirect Business Taxes Adjustments to the definition of GNP: Depreciation of capital Net unilateral transfers of income Indirect business taxes The National Income Accounts

The National Income Accounts:

6 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) It equals GNP minus net receipts of factor income from the rest of the world. It does not correct for the portion of countries’ production carried out using services provided by foreign-owned capital. The National Income Accounts

National Income Accounting for an Open Economy:

7 The National Income Identity for an Open Economy Y = C + I + G + EX – IM (12-1) where: Y is GNP C is consumption I is investment G is government purchases EX is exports IM is imports In a closed economy, EX = IM = 0. National Income Accounting for an Open Economy

National Income Accounting for an Open Economy:

8 The Current Account and Foreign Indebtedness Current account ( CA ) balance The difference between exports of goods and services and imports of goods and services ( CA = EX – IM ) CA measures the size and direction of international borrowing. National Income Accounting for an Open Economy

National Income Accounting for an Open Economy:

9 CA balance is equal to the difference between national income and domestic residents’ spending: Y – (C+ I + G) = CA CA balance is goods production less domestic demand. CA balance is the excess supply of domestic financing. National Income Accounting for an Open Economy

PowerPoint Presentation:

10 Figure 12-2 : The U.S. Current Account and Net Foreign Wealth Position, 1977-2000 National Income Accounting for an Open Economy

National Income Accounting for an Open Economy:

11 Saving and the Current Account National saving ( S ) A country’s CA surplus is referred to as its net foreign investment. National Income Accounting for an Open Economy Private and Government Saving S p = I + CA – S g = I + CA – ( T – G ) = I + CA + ( G – T ) (12-2)

The Balance of Payments Accounts:

12 The Balance of Payments Accounts A track of both its payments to and its receipts from foreigners. Every international transaction automatically enters the balance of payments twice: once as a credit (+) and once as a debit (-). Exports or imports of goods or services Purchases or sales of financial assets Transfers of wealth between countries They are recorded in the capital account

The Balance of Payments Accounts:

13 The Fundamental Balance of Payments Identity Current account + financial account + capital account = 0 (12-3) The Balance of Payments Accounts The Current Account, Once Again Merchandise trade Services Income

PowerPoint Presentation:

14 The Capital Account It records asset transfers and tends to be small for the United States. The Financial Account Financial inflow (capital inflow) Financial outflow (capital outflow) The Balance of Payments Accounts The Statistical Discrepancy

PowerPoint Presentation:

15 Official Reserve Transactions Official international reserves Official foreign exchange intervention The Balance of Payments Accounts Official settlements balance (balance of payments) The book-keeping offset to the balance of official reserve transactions It is the sum of the current account balance, the capital account balance, the nonreserve portion of the financial account balance, and the statistical discrepancy. A country with a negative balance of payments may signal that it is running down its international reserve assets or incurring debts to foreign monetary authorities.

PowerPoint Presentation:

16 Case Study: Is the United States the World’s Biggest Debtor? At the end of 1999, the United States had a negative net foreign wealth position far greater than that of any other single country. The United States is the world’s biggest debtor. However, the United States has the world’s largest GNP. The Balance of Payments Accounts

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