ayurvedic dosage forms

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Ayurvedic Pharamacy:

Ayurvedic Pharamacy Asava Arishta Lehyas Leham Avaleha Bhasmas Churna TailaGutika Modaka Vati Vadagam

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Asava/Arishta are the ayurvedic dosage form processed by soaking the drug in powdered form / decoction form, in a solution of sugar or jaggery for a specific period of time to undergo fermentation Arishta or Asava treatment is suggested for a variety of diseases and conditions The difference between arishta and asava is simple arishta is prepared from the essence/decoction of medicinal herbs while asava is prepared from fresh herbs

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Preparation Crude Drug mention in the formula ↓ Powdered the drug Asava Arishta Powdered drug Decoction of powder ↓ Transferred to Fermentation Vessel ↓ Solution of Sugar, Jaggery or Honey is added (Heated to Dissolve) ↓ Close the earthen lid sealed edges with clay smeared cloth ↓ Fermented at constant temp ↓ Set aside to settle down matter ↓ Fluid decanted & filtered ↓ Boil to avoid further fermentation ↓ Filled in bottle and sealed

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Properties: Should be Clear No foam should be produced Should not become sour on standing It has characteristic, aromatic & alcoholic odour During fermentation, Alcohol is produced which facilitates extraction of active constituents contained in the drug Alcohol also serve as preservative in the product Earlier, The wooden pots are fumigated with pippali powder and also smeared with ghee before the fermentation liquids are pour into them

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Shelf Life: Much longer time Storage Conditions: Should be stored in air tight container Narrow mouthed Store in cool place Away from sunlight

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Marketed Preparations: Asavas Arishtas Kumariasava Dashmularishta Madhukasava Draksharista Punarnavasava Vidangarista Chandanasava Asokarishta

Lehyas/ Leham/ Avaleha/ Semisolids:

Lehyas/ Leham/ Avaleha/ Semisolids Semisolid Ayurvedic dosage form, which are thickened, sweetened extracts of single or combination of herbs/animal & mineral matter. Preparation comprises of: Decoction or other liquid Jaggery/ sugar/ honey Powder or Pulp of drug Ghee or Oil

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Sugar/ Jaggery + Liquid ↓ Boiled & Dissolved (Ghee or Oil if any) Powdered drugs in small quantities ↓ Stirred continuously ↓ Homogenous mass is formed

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Properties: Can be lifted in a spoon When pressed between fingers, show threads during stretching Sinks in water without getting easily dissolved Finger leaves impression on it Components of lehyas are easily absorbed by the body, starting from the mouth

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Storage: Kept in Glass/ Porcelain Jar or suitable plastic or metal container which is inert. Wide mouthed container is used Air tight Keep away from hot & humid conditions Shelf Life: Used with in a year Examples: Brahma rasayanam Sukumara rasayanam Draksavaleha Chyavanprasha

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Bhasmas are powdered form of ayurvedic preparations, obtained by calcination of metals, minerals or animal products by a special process in closed crucibles or pits covered by cow dung cakes. Examples: Swarn bhasma, Shnakha bhasma and Tamra bhasma

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Preparation of Bhasma : Shodhana is a process of purification and detoxification by which physical and chemical blemishes and toxic materials are eliminated substances are subjected for further processing. R emove harmful substances and impurities present in the drugs. Marna is a process in which metals and minerals are made into paste with various drugs and juices. Objective to make bhasma and this drugs are reduced to finest particles . Jarana is a process of decomposing the particles by subjected to fire treatment in a measured manner for reducing them to ashes. To make it absorbable.

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Types: On the basis of color grey, whitish, yellowish or black colored. A more scientific way of classification is on the basis of metal and mineral group like: Rajata group, Tamra group, Loha group etc. Shelf Life: Quite stable products, maintain potency for a long time Properties: Bhasma has great therapeutic value because they get absorbed easily into body even in very small doses

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Quality Control of Bhasma: There should be not metallic lusture When a small quantity is spread on cold and still water, it should float on the surface The bhasma should not revert to original state. Storage: Store in cool & Dry place Keep away from moisture & sunlight

Important bhasmas and their main ingredient:

No. Bhasma Main Ingredient Loha bhasma Iron oxide Naga bhasma Lead Abhrak bhasma Mica Yasad Bhasma Zinc Oxide Swarn Bhasma Gold Important bhasmas and their main ingredient

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Churna: Dried ayurvedic dosage form comprises of fine powder of drug/s is known as churna. Drug can be any dried part of plant: stem, leaves, root, bark, fruit etc. The churna is free flowing powder. The principle of using Churnas is due to the fact that therapeutic value of most of the substances is greatly increases when they are reduces to vary fine state of subdivion and is particularly notable in the cases of antacids, protective and adsorbents.

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Procedure: Drugs mentioned in formula, Separated Powders ↓ 1. Cleaned properly 2. Dried thoroughly 3. Pulverised (reduced to small size) 4. Sieved (80 mesh size). Weighed ↓ Mixed together uniformly

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Shelf Life: If stored properly, retains potency for one year. Storage conditions: Air tight container, Kept away from moisture Store in a cool & dry place Advantages: They are also easily administrable specially in the cases of children where they can not swallow pills, tablets or capsules

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Marketed Formulations: Ashwagandhadi Churna Triphala Churna Trikatu Churna Sudarshan Churna Drakshadi Churna

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Taila: Also called Medicated Oil Liquid ayurvedic dosage form intended for external & internal use comprises of compounds with medicinal value or phytoconstituents present in oil The Taila preferably should be fresh There are usually 3 or 4 essential components in the manufacture of Taila Drava [Any liquid medium as prescribed in the composition] Kalka [Fine paste of the specified drug] Sneha dravya [Taila] Gandha dravya [Perfuming agents]

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Sneha Dravya (Taila) (4 Part) ↓ + Drava [Any liquid medium] ( 16 part ) ↓ + Kalka [Fine paste of drugs] ( 1 part ) ↓ Heat at 50-90 0 C Stir Continuously , ↓ Avoid charring of the paste at bottom ↓ Appearance of foam at surface The process of boiling is to be continued till the whole amount of moisture gets evaporated ↓ Filter while hot (about 80 0 ) and allow to cool. ↓ Pack it in tightly closed glass containers

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Properties: The medicated Taila will have the odour, colour and taste of the drugs used in the process. Protect from light and moisture Tailas are preserved in good quality of glass, steel or polythene containers. Shelf Life: These medicated preparations retain the therapeutic efficacy for sixteen months. Usage: Used as a internally and topically They are taken internally with warm water or warm milk

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Marketed Formulations: Bhringaraja Taila Maha Narayan Taila Laghu Visagarbha Taila Anu Taila Dhanvantara Taila

Gutika/ Modaka/ Vati/ Vadagam/ Tablets/ Pills :

Gutika/ Modaka/ Vati/ Vadagam/ Tablets/ Pills Soild ayurvedic dosage form made up of one or more drugs of plant, animal or mineral origin by the process of powdered, sieving, & mixing with prescribed liquids and triturated till attained the consistency suitable for making gutika.

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The drugs of plant origin are dried and made into fine powders, separately. The minerals are made into bhasma ↓ These are put into a suitable container and ground to a soft paste with the prescribed fluids. When more than one liquid is mentioned for grinding, they are used in succession. ↓ When the mass is properly ground and is in a condition to be made into pills. ↓ Mass is rolled manually or with the help of suitable machine, compressed into gutikas/ vati.

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Storage: Air tight container Preparation containing vegetable drugs can be used for 2 years Preparations containing minerals or metals can be used for indefinite period Pills and vatis should not lose their original color, smell, taste and form. When sugar, salt is an ingredient, the pills should be kept away from moisture.

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Packaging: Bottles Strip Packing Blister Packing

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Marketed Formulations: Marikadi Gutika Khadiradi Vati Sanjivni Vati Lakshmivilasrasa Vati

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