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Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling:

Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling

Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling:

Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Thread Scheduling Multiple-Processor Scheduling Operating Systems Examples Algorithm Evaluation


Objectives To introduce CPU scheduling, which is the basis for multiprogrammed operating systems To describe various CPU-scheduling algorithms To discuss evaluation criteria for selecting a CPU-scheduling algorithm for a particular system

Basic Concepts:

Basic Concepts Maximum CPU utilization obtained with multiprogramming CPU–I/O Burst Cycle – Process execution consists of a cycle of CPU execution and I/O wait CPU burst distribution

Histogram of CPU-burst Times:

Histogram of CPU-burst Times

Alternating Sequence of CPU And I/O Bursts:

Alternating Sequence of CPU And I/O Bursts

CPU Scheduler:

CPU Scheduler Selects from among the processes in memory that are ready to execute, and allocates the CPU to one of them CPU scheduling decisions may take place when a process: 1. Switches from running to waiting state 2. Switches from running to ready state 3. Switches from waiting to ready 4. Terminates Scheduling under 1 and 4 is nonpreemptive All other scheduling is preemptive


Dispatcher Dispatcher module gives control of the CPU to the process selected by the short-term scheduler; this involves: switching context switching to user mode jumping to the proper location in the user program to restart that program Dispatch latency – time it takes for the dispatcher to stop one process and start another running

Scheduling Criteria:

Scheduling Criteria CPU utilization – keep the CPU as busy as possible Throughput – # of processes that complete their execution per time unit Turnaround time – amount of time to execute a particular process Waiting time – amount of time a process has been waiting in the ready queue Response time – amount of time it takes from when a request was submitted until the first response is produced, not output (for time-sharing environment)

Scheduling Algorithm Optimization Criteria:

Scheduling Algorithm Optimization Criteria Max CPU utilization Max throughput Min turnaround time Min waiting time Min response time

First-Come, First-Served (FCFS) Scheduling:

First-Come, First-Served (FCFS) Scheduling Process Burst Time P 1 24 P 2 3 P 3 3 Suppose that the processes arrive in the order: P 1 , P 2 , P 3 The Gantt Chart for the schedule is: Waiting time for P 1 = 0; P 2 = 24; P 3 = 27 Average waiting time: (0 + 24 + 27)/3 = 17 P 1 P 2 P 3 24 27 30 0

FCFS Scheduling (Cont):

FCFS Scheduling (Cont) Suppose that the processes arrive in the order P 2 , P 3 , P 1 The Gantt chart for the schedule is: Waiting time for P 1 = 6 ; P 2 = 0 ; P 3 = 3 Average waiting time: (6 + 0 + 3)/3 = 3 Much better than previous case Convoy effect short process behind long process P 1 P 3 P 2 6 3 30 0

Shortest-Job-First (SJF) Scheduling:

Shortest-Job-First (SJF) Scheduling Associate with each process the length of its next CPU burst. Use these lengths to schedule the process with the shortest time SJF is optimal – gives minimum average waiting time for a given set of processes The difficulty is knowing the length of the next CPU request

Example of SJF:

Example of SJF Process Arrival Time Burst Time P 1 0.0 6 P 2 0.0 8 P 3 0.0 7 P 4 0.0 3 SJF scheduling chart Average waiting time = (3 + 16 + 9 + 0) / 4 = 7 P 4 P 3 P 1 3 16 0 9 P 2 24

Determining Length of Next CPU Burst:

Determining Length of Next CPU Burst Can only estimate the length Can be done by using the length of previous CPU bursts, using exponential averaging

Prediction of the Length of the Next CPU Burst:

Prediction of the Length of the Next CPU Burst

Examples of Exponential Averaging:

Examples of Exponential Averaging  =0  n+1 =  n Recent history does not count  =1  n+1 =  t n Only the actual last CPU burst counts If we expand the formula, we get:  n +1 =  t n +(1 -  )  t n -1 + … +( 1 -  ) j  t n - j + … +( 1 -  ) n +1  0 Since both  and (1 - ) are less than or equal to 1, each successive term has less weight than its predecessor

Priority Scheduling:

Priority Scheduling A priority number (integer) is associated with each process The CPU is allocated to the process with the highest priority (smallest integer  highest priority) Preemptive nonpreemptive SJF is a priority scheduling where priority is the predicted next CPU burst time Problem  Starvation – low priority processes may never execute Solution  Aging – as time progresses increase the priority of the process

Round Robin (RR):

Round Robin (RR) Each process gets a small unit of CPU time ( time quantum ), usually 10-100 milliseconds. After this time has elapsed, the process is preempted and added to the end of the ready queue. If there are n processes in the ready queue and the time quantum is q , then each process gets 1/ n of the CPU time in chunks of at most q time units at once. No process waits more than ( n -1) q time units. Performance q large  FIFO q small  q must be large with respect to context switch, otherwise overhead is too high

Example of RR with Time Quantum = 4:

Example of RR with Time Quantum = 4 Process Burst Time P 1 24 P 2 3 P 3 3 The Gantt chart is: Typically, higher average turnaround than SJF, but better response P 1 P 2 P 3 P 1 P 1 P 1 P 1 P 1 0 4 7 10 14 18 22 26 30

Time Quantum and Context Switch Time:

Time Quantum and Context Switch Time

Turnaround Time Varies With The Time Quantum:

Turnaround Time Varies With The Time Quantum

Multilevel Queue:

Multilevel Queue Ready queue is partitioned into separate queues: foreground (interactive) background (batch) Each queue has its own scheduling algorithm foreground – RR background – FCFS Scheduling must be done between the queues Fixed priority scheduling; (i.e., serve all from foreground then from background). Possibility of starvation. Time slice – each queue gets a certain amount of CPU time which it can schedule amongst its processes; i.e., 80% to foreground in RR 20% to background in FCFS

Multilevel Queue Scheduling:

Multilevel Queue Scheduling

Multilevel Feedback Queue:

Multilevel Feedback Queue A process can move between the various queues; aging can be implemented this way Multilevel-feedback-queue scheduler defined by the following parameters: number of queues scheduling algorithms for each queue method used to determine when to upgrade a process method used to determine when to demote a process method used to determine which queue a process will enter when that process needs service

Example of Multilevel Feedback Queue:

Example of Multilevel Feedback Queue Three queues: Q 0 – RR with time quantum 8 milliseconds Q 1 – RR time quantum 16 milliseconds Q 2 – FCFS Scheduling A new job enters queue Q 0 which is served FCFS. When it gains CPU, job receives 8 milliseconds. If it does not finish in 8 milliseconds, job is moved to queue Q 1 . At Q 1 job is again served FCFS and receives 16 additional milliseconds. If it still does not complete, it is preempted and moved to queue Q 2 .

Multilevel Feedback Queues:

Multilevel Feedback Queues

Thread Scheduling:

Thread Scheduling Distinction between user-level and kernel-level threads Many-to-one and many-to-many models, thread library schedules user-level threads to run on LWP Known as process-contention scope (PCS) since scheduling competition is within the process Kernel thread scheduled onto available CPU is system-contention scope (SCS) – competition among all threads in system

Pthread Scheduling:

Pthread Scheduling API allows specifying either PCS or SCS during thread creation PTHREAD SCOPE PROCESS schedules threads using PCS scheduling PTHREAD SCOPE SYSTEM schedules threads using SCS scheduling.

Pthread Scheduling API:

Pthread Scheduling API #include <pthread.h> #include <stdio.h> #define NUM THREADS 5 int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { int i; pthread t tid[NUM THREADS]; pthread attr t attr; /* get the default attributes */ pthread attr init(&attr); /* set the scheduling algorithm to PROCESS or SYSTEM */ pthread attr setscope(&attr, PTHREAD SCOPE SYSTEM); /* set the scheduling policy - FIFO, RT, or OTHER */ pthread attr setschedpolicy(&attr, SCHED OTHER); /* create the threads */ for (i = 0; i < NUM THREADS; i++) pthread create(&tid[i],&attr,runner,NULL);

Pthread Scheduling API:

Pthread Scheduling API /* now join on each thread */ for (i = 0; i < NUM THREADS; i++) pthread join(tid[i], NULL); } /* Each thread will begin control in this function */ void *runner(void *param) { printf("I am a thread\n"); pthread exit(0); }

Multiple-Processor Scheduling:

Multiple-Processor Scheduling CPU scheduling more complex when multiple CPUs are available Homogeneous processors within a multiprocessor Asymmetric multiprocessing – only one processor accesses the system data structures, alleviating the need for data sharing Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) – each processor is self-scheduling, all processes in common ready queue, or each has its own private queue of ready processes Processor affinity – process has affinity for processor on which it is currently running soft affinity hard affinity

NUMA and CPU Scheduling:

NUMA and CPU Scheduling

Multicore Processors:

Multicore Processors Recent trend to place multiple processor cores on same physical chip Faster and consume less power Multiple threads per core also growing Takes advantage of memory stall to make progress on another thread while memory retrieve happens

Multithreaded Multicore System:

Multithreaded Multicore System

Operating System Examples:

Operating System Examples Solaris scheduling Windows XP scheduling Linux scheduling

Solaris Dispatch Table :

Solaris Dispatch Table

Solaris Scheduling:

Solaris Scheduling

Windows XP Priorities:

Windows XP Priorities

Linux Scheduling:

Linux Scheduling Constant order O (1) scheduling time Two priority ranges: time-sharing and real-time Real-time range from 0 to 99 and nice value from 100 to 140 (figure 5.15)

Priorities and Time-slice length:

Priorities and Time-slice length

List of Tasks Indexed According to Priorities:

List of Tasks Indexed According to Priorities

Algorithm Evaluation:

Algorithm Evaluation Deterministic modeling – takes a particular predetermined workload and defines the performance of each algorithm for that workload Queueing models Implementation

Evaluation of CPU schedulers by Simulation:

Evaluation of CPU schedulers by Simulation

End of Chapter 5:

End of Chapter 5









Dispatch Latency:

Dispatch Latency

Java Thread Scheduling:

Java Thread Scheduling JVM Uses a Preemptive, Priority-Based Scheduling Algorithm FIFO Queue is Used if There Are Multiple Threads With the Same Priority

Java Thread Scheduling (cont):

Java Thread Scheduling (cont) JVM Schedules a Thread to Run When: The Currently Running Thread Exits the Runnable State A Higher Priority Thread Enters the Runnable State * Note – the JVM Does Not Specify Whether Threads are Time-Sliced or Not


Time-Slicing Since the JVM Doesn’t Ensure Time-Slicing, the yield() Method May Be Used: while (true) { // perform CPU-intensive task . . . Thread.yield(); } This Yields Control to Another Thread of Equal Priority

Thread Priorities:

Thread Priorities Priority Comment Thread.MIN_PRIORITY Minimum Thread Priority Thread.MAX_PRIORITY Maximum Thread Priority Thread.NORM_PRIORITY Default Thread Priority Priorities May Be Set Using setPriority() method: setPriority(Thread.NORM_PRIORITY + 2);

Solaris 2 Scheduling:

Solaris 2 Scheduling

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