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coping with stress


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Stress ...our physiological and psychological response to situations that threaten or challenge us and that require some kind of adjustment. Pioneering Researcher: Hans Selye He developed a theory about how stress produces illness: “General Adaptation Syndrome” G. A. S.

General Adaptation Syndrome:

General Adaptation Syndrome Stressor ...a demand placed on the body that requires adjustment and brings about the stress reaction. G. A. S. 3 Stages: 1. Alarm 2. Resistance 3. Exhaustion Healthy Adaptation or Illness

General Adaptation Syndrome:

General Adaptation Syndrome Alarm “Fight or Flight” reaction: body mobilizes resources to combat threat; activates the sympathetic nervous system. Resistance Enhanced ability to fight stressor via moderate physiological arousal; ability to withstand additional stressors (e.g., infection) is reduced. Exhaustion Depletion of resources brings on diseases and disorders (e.g., chronically high heart rate and blood pressure increase chances of heart attack and stroke).

Lazarus’s Cognitive Theory:

Lazarus’s Cognitive Theory G. A. S. Healthy Adaptation or Illness Stressor Appraisal Selye assumed that stress depended only on the intensity of the stressor. Lazarus proposed that a mental process determines whether stress occurs.

Lazarus and Folkman’s Theory:

Lazarus and Folkman’s Theory Stressor Primary Appraisal: Is Stressor Negative? Can be negative if it involves harm or loss, threat, or challenge (chance to grow). Secondary Appraisal: Can I Control the Situation? If coping resources are adequate, then consider options: problem-focused or emotion-focused coping strategies. Yes No No Stress

Lazarus and Folkman’s Theory:

Lazarus and Folkman’s Theory Physiological component: Arousal, hormone secretion. Emotional Component: Anxiety, fear, grief, resentment, excitement (if stress is from challenge). Behavioral Component: Coping strategies (both behavioral and mental)—problem focused and/or emotion-focused. The level of stress we experience depends mainly on the adequacy of our resources for coping and how much they will be drained by the stressful situation. The Stress Response

Coping Strategies:

Coping Strategies Problem-Focused Coping: a response aimed at reducing, modifying, or eliminating a source of stress (e.g., if grades in a course are low, reduce work hours, change study strategy, etc.). Emotion-Focused Coping: a response aimed at reducing the emotional impact of the stressor (e.g., denial, religious faith, wishful thinking, humor, alcohol/drugs, promiscuous sex). In the low grades example, you can reappraise the stressor and reduce the importance you attach to that course, that major, or academic work in general. Two major emotion-focused strategies are: MEDITATION and BIOFEEDBACK

Uploaded by Asfar Khan:

Uploaded by Asfar Khan

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