bipolar disorder

Category: Education

Presentation Description

This presentation explains the signs and prescription for bipolar disorder.


Presentation Transcript

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Lithium in Medicine: Maniac Depression/ Bipolar Disease Presenter: Mr. Stephen Murray

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What is bipolar disorder?

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Bipolar disorder, manic depression, causes serious shifts in mood, energy, thinking, and behavior from the highs of mania on one extreme, to the lows of depression on the other. More than just a fleeting good or bad mood, the cycles of bipolar disorder last for days, weeks, or months. Unlike ordinary mood swings, the mood changes of bipolar disorder are so intense that they interfere with your ability to function.

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During a manic episode, a person might impulsively quit a job, charge up huge amounts on credit cards, or feel rested after sleeping two hours. During a depressive episode, the same person might be too tired to get out of bed and full of self-loathing and hopelessness over being unemployed and in debt.

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The causes of bipolar disorder aren’t completely understood, but it often runs in families. The first manic or depressive episode of bipolar disorder usually occurs in the teenage years or early adulthood. The symptoms can be subtle and confusing, so many people with bipolar disorder are overlooked or misdiagnosed–resulting in unnecessary suffering. But with proper treatment and support, you can lead a rich and fulfilling life.

What is BD?:

What is BD? long-term illness that can be effectively treated currently has no cure staying on treatment, even during well times, can help keep the disease under control and reduce the chance of having recurrent, worsening episodes

Bipolar Disorder (BD) – treatment – current and future…:

Bipolar Disorder (BD) – treatment – current and future…


Basics treatment plan for bipolar disorder primarily consists of pharmacological intervention (medications) and sometimes psychological therapy psychiatric hospitalizations may be necessary to safely reach a point of stability also treatment options that are less common and those that are usually considered only in extreme circumstances


medications primary goal of drug treatment is to stabilize the extreme mood swings of mania and depression also common for medications to be prescribed for extreme symptoms such as psychosis co-occurring disorders such as anxiety generally fall into the following categories Anti-Anxiety and Sedatives Antidepressants Antipsychotics Mood Stabilizers Calcium Channel Blockers

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bipolar disorder is much better controlled if treatment is continuous rather than intermittent... even if treatment regimen is followed mood changes can occur and should be reported immediately to Bellevue B ellevue may be able to prevent a full-blown episode by making adjustments to the treatment plan


Medications recommended that people with bipolar disorder see a psychiatrist for treatment psychiatric nurse practitioners are also recommended if psychiatry not available, or affordable, or easily obtainable


Lithium and its uses in medicine


DRUG CLASS AND MECHANISM Lithium is used for the treatment of manic/depressive (bipolar) and depressive disorders . Lithium is a positively charged element or particle that is similar to sodium and potassium. It interferes at several places inside cells and on the cell surface with other positively charged atoms such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium which are important in many cellular functions.


Lithium Lithium interferes with the production and uptake of chemical messengers by which nerves communicate with each other (neurotransmitters ). Lithium also affects the concentrations of tryptophan and serotonin in the brain. In addition, lithium increases the production of white blood cells in the bone marrow. Lithium's effects usually begin within 1 week of starting treatment, and the full effect is seen by 2 to 3 weeks.


Lithium traditional treatment for manic-depression seems to have a suicide reducing effect that the other mood stabilizers do not People don't like to take it because it makes them drink a lot of water and urinate a lot (35%) causes memory problems (28%) tremor (27%) weight gain (19%) gives them a metallic taste in their mouth can also affect the kidneys and the thyroid


Lithium dosed according to blood levels if the lithium level gets too high, death can result if someone becomes dehydrated, the lithium level rises with vomiting and diarrhea, confusion, coarse tremor, muscle twitching, slurred speech, and seizures requires emergency medical attention stopping lithium suddenly may cause a relapse and increase in suicidality

research conducted:

research conducted About 50 years, manic-depressive people were treated with lithium even though medical science did not know why or how it worked. Then in 1998, University of Wisconsin researchers unlocked the mystery.

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The secret of lithium has to do with nerve cells in the brain, and the receptors for the neurotransmitter glutamate. neurotransmitters are released from one neuron (nerve cell) and may bond to the receptors of a neighbouring cell or be picked up by auto receptors from the releasing cell (among other things). The result varies depending on what the type of receiving cell and the type of neurotransmitter.

A research conducted:

A research conducted University of Wisconsin researchers found that lithium exerts a dual effect on receptors for the neurotransmitter glutamate acting to keep the amount of glutamate active between cells at a stable, healthy level, neither too much nor too little. UW Medical School professor of pharmacology Dr. Lowell Hokin , postulated that too much glutamate in the space between neurons causes mania, and too little, depression. This is a giant step forward in understanding the biological basis of bipolar disorder

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The exact way in which lithium works to treat bipolar disorder is unknown. It is thought that the drug may affect various chemicals in the brain called neurotransmitters, which could explain the effectiveness of lithium medicine in treating bipolar disorder. The drug is not a cure for bipolar disorder, however. It only helps to control symptoms.


Note Research has never indicated that that bipolar disorder might be caused by a lithium deficiency. Rather, it happens that this naturally occurring substance has the fortunate effect of acting as a mood stabilizer.

Statistics :

Statistics More than 2 million American adults, or about 1 percent of the population age 18 and older in any given year, have bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder typically develops in late adolescence or early adulthood. However, some people experience their first symptoms during childhood, while others develop them late in life.

How Effective is Lithium? :

How Effective is Lithium? Despite the potential difficulties with lithium treatment, it remains the best medication for stabilising mood in most people. It's the mood-stabilising drug, when mood is severely low, one suffers from depression. T his has the best-proven results in boosting the effect of antidepressants. Many people find it an effective medicine that helps to control their mood disorder and greatly improve their quality of life. In short , it reduces chemicals in the body that cause excitation or mania.


Summary Bipolar disorder: Significant public health impact Highly recurrent


Summary Bipolar affective disorder has a lifetime prevalence of at least 1%. Its severity ranges from mild, readily controllable episodes, to rapidly cycling and/or psychotic states that are devastating. For most persons, one episode of mania or two episodes of depression mean a significantly increased risk of repeated cycles of illness. Suicide, drug and alcohol abuse, and loss of family and/or occupation are not uncommon consequences.


Summary Most people with this illness can be treated effectively with the use lithium as a key ingredient. For many, a long term treatment plan including daily use of lithium as a mood stabilizer, practical psychotherapy, and judicious use of other medications to quell minor mood swings provides a level of benefit superior to that of people treated for high blood pressure, diabetes, or other common chronic or recurrent medical illnesses.