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Data Communication Modes And Data Transmission Media 

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Data Transmission Data Transmission refers to the movement of data in form of bits between two or more digital devices.

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Parallel Transmission In Parallel Transmission, Bits Are Sent In A Group Simultaneously, Each Using A Separate Link. It Uses ‘A’ Wires To Send ‘A’ Bits At a Time. The Advantage Of Parallel Transmission Is Speed. Its High Cost Is Its Only Significant Disadvantage . i.e Why It Is Used For Limited Distances.

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Serial Transmission In Serial Transmission, One Bit Data Is Transmitted at a Time Using One Single Link. It Is More Practical And Schychornised Mode Of Transmission Due To Less Cost,. Its Main Disadvantage Is Its Less Speed It Is Of Two Types  Synchronous Transmission Asynchronous Transmission.

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Asynchronous Connection: Transmitter & receiver clocks are independent. In Asynchronous connection each character is sent at irregular intervals. Synchronous Connection- Transmitter & receiver are synchronized i.e. receiver receives the information at the same rate the transmitter sends it.

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Serial vs Parallel Data Transfer

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Data Transmitting Modes:- It is used to define the direction of signal flow btw two linked devices . Types OF Data Transmission Modes Simplex Mode Half Duplex Mode Full-Duplex Mode

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Simplex Mode In Simplex Mode, Data Communication Is Unidirectional. It Is Suitable For Connecting Send Only /Receive Only Devices. Simplex Circuits Are Seldom Used. Disadvantage:- It doesn’t support return path to send acknowledgment, control or error signals Example:- Keyboards And Monitors .

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Half-Duplex Mode It Can Transmit Data In Both Direction But In Only One Direction At A Time. It Is Suitable For Connecting a Terminal to a Computer in which Terminal Transmits Data & Computer Responds with Acknowledgment. It Is Like One-lane Road With Two Directional Traffic. Example- Walkie-talkies & CB radios.

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Full-Duplex Mode It Can Transmit Data In Both Directions Simultaneously. It Improves Efficiency because it Eliminates The Direction Switching Delay Of A Half-Duplex System. It Is Like Two-way Street with traffic Flowing In Both Directions. Example  Telephone Network, where Two People Communicating By A Telephone Line, Both Can Talk And Listen At The Same Time.

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Modes Of Data Transmission

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Data Transmission Media It Is The Physical Path Linking Two Communication Devices.

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Guided Media They Are The Transmission Media With A Physical Boundary. It includes Twisted-pair Cables, Co-axial Cables, Optic Fibers . A signal Directed By Any Of These Signals Are Directed And Contained By The Physical Limits.

Twisted Pair Cable:

Twisted Pair Cable Unshielded Twisted Pair Cable Shielded Twisted Pair Cable It consists of two conductors enclosed with a specific plastic insulation, twisted around each other. One wire is used to carry signal to the receiver &other is used as ground reference. Advantage:- Cheap & Easy To Install Light In weight Disadvantage Prone to data errors & noise reference. It Has limited line length. It consists of a metal shield over the twisted copper wires. Metal shield avoids noise interference or crosstalk. Advantage:- Less prone to noise and data errors. It covers more distance Easily. Disadvantage:- It is very bulky &expensive due to shield of metal.

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Application:- Used in telephone lines to provide data and voice transmission. DSL lines use bandwidth of UTP. LAN’s such as 10-Base-T & 100-Base-T also use twisted pair. Examples:- UTP Registered Jack 45

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Coaxial Cables A Transmission Medium Consisting Of Consisting Of A Conducting Core, Insulating Material And A Second Conducting Sheath. They Carries Signals Of Higher Frequency Ranges Than Twisted Pairs.

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Applications:- It is used in telephone lines. It is used in cable television wires & in some LAN’s also. It is also used in thick & thin Ethernet. Broadband can send more data than baseband..

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Optical Fiber A higher bandwidth transmission medium that carries data signals in the form of pulses of light. It consists of thin cylinder of glass or plastic, called the core, surrounded by a concentric layer of glass or plastic called the “cladding”. Cladding is made of 50-microns in multimode fibers & 8-10 microns in single mode fiber These fibers are grouped in bundles & are protected by outer sheath.

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Two kinds of light sources can be used to give signals :- LED. Semiconductor Lasers . Advantage:- Large Bandwidth Low Loss Small in size And Light weight. Security Safety & Electrical Insulation. Less Prone To Electromagnetic Interference.

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Unguided Media It is also known as wireless communication. They transport electromagnetic waves without using physical conductor .

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Radio Frequency Allocation:- The section of electromagnetic spectrum is defined as radio communication is divided into eight rays called bands. Radio waves are unidirectional. They utilizes five types of propagation:- Surface Tropospheric Ionospheric Line of style Space Applications :- Used for multicasting(One sender &many receivers)

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Advantage:- Can travel long distance Radio waves of low & medium frequency can penetrate walls. Disadvantage:- Radio waves are narrow , which when divided into sub-bands leads to low data rate. One antenna is susceptible to interfere by another antenna.

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Terrestrial Microscope:- Microwave system are used to transit data at high frequency, precisely is microwave transmission btw antennas. They are unidirectional, when antenna transmits microwave signals, they are narrowly focused. They do not follow curvature of earth, therefore require line of transmission & reception equipment. Repeaters are used in microwaves to increase the distance served by terrestrial microwave. Terrestrial microwave with repeaters provide the basics for most contemporary telephone system worldwide.

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Applications:- They can be used when one to one communication is needs btw sender & receiver. Terrestrial microwave radio broadcasting relay links in telecommunications networks including e.g. backbone carriers in cellular networks. Proposed systems e.g. for connecting solar power collecting satellites to terrestrial power grids

Communication Satellite:

The principle of communication satellite is same as that of terrestrial microscope with a satellite acting as a super tall antenna &repeaters. Communication satellite are the relay stations placed in outer space. The transmitter, orbit & receiver need to be defined in an orbit. These are launched by space shuttles , rockets etc & are placed at 3600kms above the equator. The transmitter signals at 6hz or 14hz to a satellite in space. Till it reaches space signal becomes weak so transponders are used to amplify the signals. Communication Satellite

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Advantages: High bandwidth Coverage over a large geographical area Can be cheaper over long distances Disadvantages: Huge initial cost Noise and interference Propagation delay

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By: Aakanksha Kashyap Ankita Dhingra Manika Bhatia Nitika Saini …… 

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