project_biofuels(kunal)

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project on biofuels

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BIOFUELS:

BIOFUELS Presented by :- Kunal Kumar 2 nd year Sec-B

PowerPoint Presentation:

Biofuels are a wide range of fuels which are someway derived from biomass. The term covers solid biomass,liquid fuels & varios biogases . Biofuel is gaining increased public & scientific attention due to factors such as Oil price hikes Need of increased energy security Green house emission from fossil fuels

Generations of Biofuels:

Generations of Biofuels First generation biofuels First generation biofuels are biofuels made from sugar,starch and vegetable oils. Bioalcohols Biologically produced alcohols, most commonly ethanol and less commonly butanol , are produced by the action of microorganisms.

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Ethanol is most common biofuel worldwide. Ethanol provides replacement for gasoline because it is directly used in gasoline engine. Ethanol can also be used in petrol engine after mixing with gasoline. Ethanol is also used to fuel bioethanol fireplaces .

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Green diesel It is also known as renewable diesel. It is sourced from various oils such as canola,tallow,jatropa . It is different from biodiesel. Green diesel is mainly used in Ireland.

Bio-diesel:

Bio-diesel Biodiesel is the most common biofuel in Europe. It is produced from oils or fats using transesterification . Biodiesel can be used in any diesel engine when mixed with mineral diesel. Biodiesel is also an oxygenated fuel , meaning that it contains a reduced amount of carbon and higher hydrogen and oxygen content than fossil diesel.

Biogas:

Biogas Biogas is methane(CH 4 ) produced by biodegradation of waste materials. The solid by product, digestate,can be used as biofuel or a fertilizer .

Solid biofuels:

Solid biofuels It is densified form of biomass. Ex- sawdust,dried manure,charcoal . Densification includes grinding the raw biomass to an appropriate particulate size (known as hogfuel ), which depending on the densification type can be from 1 to 3 cm (1 in), which is then concentrated into a fuel product. A derivative of solid biofuel is biochar which can substitute wood charcoal since wood stock is becoming scarce.

Second generation biofuels :

Second generation biofuels second-generation biofuel refers to the non-food crops i.e. waste biomass,stalks of wheat,corn,wood. Second generation (2G) biofuels use biomass to liquid technology, including cellulosic biofuels. Scientists working in New Zealand have developed a technology to use industrial waste gases from steel mills as a feedstock for a microbial fermentation process to produce ethanol.

Third generation biofuels :

Third generation biofuels Algae fuel, also called oilgae or third generation biofuel, is a biofuel from algae. Algae are low-input, high-yield feedstocks to produce biofuels. With the higher prices of fossil fuels (petroleum), there is much interest in algaculture (farming algae). The United States Department of Energy estimates that if algae fuel replaced all the petroleum fuel in the United States, it would require only 15,000 square miles.

Fourth generation biofuels:

Fourth generation biofuels T here is no one established definition of "fourth-generation biofuels , Some fourth generation technology pathways include: pyrolysis, gasification, upgrading, solar-to-fuel, and genetic manipulation of organisms to secrete hydrocarbons . Second , third, and fourth generation biofuels are also called advanced biofuels.

Biofuels in india:

Biofuels in india Jatropha incentives of india (green diesel) is a part of India's goal to achieve energy independence by the year 2012 . Large plots of waste land have been selected for Jatropha cultivation and will provide much needed employment to the rural poor of India. The Indian Railways has started to use the jatropha oil t o power its diesel engines with great success. Currently it is used to run locomotivesfrom Thanjavur to Nagore section and Tiruchirapalli to Lalgudi .

Issues with biofuel production and use :

Issues with biofuel production and use There are various social, economic, environmental and technical issues with biofuel production and use,they are: Effect of oilprice rise The “food vs fuel” debate Poverty reduction potential Carbon emission levels

Air Concerns:

Air Concerns Biomass processing technologies and biofuels use have the potential to increase emissions of ozone precursors. Increase in No x emissions Excessive inhalation of ethanol is harmful Combustion of ethanol would result in increased atmospheric concentrations of carcinogens Emission of relatively large sized particulate matter

Soil Concerns:

Soil Concerns Burning biomass deprives local eco-systems of nutrients Production of dedicated energy crops renders land fallow Reduced land availability for cattle grazing Increased use of pesticides and fertilizers to produce energy crops contaminate ground and surface water Affects fish and wildlife

Environmental Benefits:

Environmental Benefits Reduction of waste Extremely low emission of greenhouse gases compared to fossil fuels Ethanol is Carbon neutral and forms a part of the carbon cycle Growing variety of crops increases bio-diversity

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Thank You

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