Alkaloids (3)

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Alkaloids:

Alkaloids

Alkaloids:

Alkaloids Distribution Properties Role in plants Defense compounds Animal poisoning Lupine Groundsel Larkspur Jimson weed (Scopolamine) Henban (Atropine) Other roles in plants

Lupines:

Lupines Texas bluebonnet

Effects of alkaloids on humans:

Effects of alkaloids on humans High biological activity Produce varying degrees of physiological and psychological responses - largely by interfering with neurotransmitters others interfere with membrane transport, protein synthesis or other processes In large doses - highly toxic - fatal In small doses, many have therapeutic value muscle relaxants, tranquilizers, pain killers, mind altering drugs, chemotherapy

Psychoactive alkaloids:

Psychoactive alkaloids Although only a small percent are psychoactive, these get much focus Affect the central nervous system - often by influencing neurotransmitters Categories of psychoactive cmpds Stimulants Hallucinogens Depressants May also be narcotic ( addictive )

Psychoactive alkaloids:

Psychoactive alkaloids

Alkaloid synthesis:

Alkaloid synthesis Most alkaloids are synthesized from a few common amino acids (tyrosine, tryptophan, ornithine or argenine, aspartic acid, & lysine) Nicotinic acid precursor for part of nicotine Purine precursor for caffeine Some alkaloids synthesized from terpenes - along mevalonic acid pathway Generally classified by the predominant ring structure and/or carbon skeleton

Tropane alkaloids:

Tropane alkaloids Many of these psychoactive alkaloids

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids:

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids

Piperidine alkaloids:

Piperidine alkaloids

Piperidine/Pyridine alkaloids:

Piperidine/Pyridine alkaloids

Purine alkaloids:

Purine alkaloids Figure 3-5 Caffeine

Quinoline alkaloids:

Quinoline alkaloids

Isoquinoline alkaloids:

Isoquinoline alkaloids

Indole alkaloids:

Indole alkaloids Vindoline Vinblastine ( Catharanthus )

Quinolizidine alkaloids:

Quinolizidine alkaloids

Steroidal alkaloids:

Steroidal alkaloids

Steroidal alkaloids:

Steroidal alkaloids

Diterpenoid alkaloids:

Diterpenoid alkaloids

Amine alkaloids:

Amine alkaloids Alkaloids without heterocyclic nitrogen atoms

Other classes of alkaloids:

Other classes of alkaloids Betalain alkaloids - pigment alkaloids Lycopodium alkaloids - restricted to club mosses Peptide alkaloids

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