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John Kupersmith jkupersm [at] A “Know Your Library” Workshop Teaching Library, University of California, Berkeley Spring 2008 Research-quality Web Searching COURSE PAGES: G o o g l e and Beyond

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Research-quality Web Searching Search Google effectively and precisely Know when to use other search engines and web directories Evaluate what you find on the web Goals

How Google works:

How Google works BEFORE you search: “Crawls” pages on the public web Copies text & images, builds database WHEN you search: Automatically ranks pages in your results Word occurrence and location on page Popularity - a link to a page is a vote for it ~ 200 factors in all!

Searching Google:

Searching Google Think “full text” = be specific war of 1812 economic causes vs. history Use academic & professional terms domestic architecture vs. houses genome society gets International Mammalian Genome Society also try combinations with association, research center, institute, directory, database

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Specify exact phrases “tom bates” “what you're looking for is already inside you” Exclude or require a word proliferation -nuclear obama +hussein

Limit your search to …:

Limit your search to … Web page title intitle:hybrid allintitle:hybrid cars mileage Website or domain “global warming” site:edu “global warming”

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File type filetype:ppt site:edu “global warming” Definitions define:pixel define:“due diligence”

On the results page:

On the results page Search box (use to modify) “Cache” “Related pages” “Translate this page” Sample search

Let’s try it !:

Let’s try it ! Search Google Use our examples or your own topics

Google’s other databases:

Google’s other databases

Why go beyond Google?:

Why go beyond Google? Search more of the web Yahoo! Get more options in results Exalead

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Take advantage of human selectivity Librarians’ Internet Index InfoMine Google Custom Search Engines (CSE)

Let’s try it !:

Let’s try it ! Try other search tools Compare results with Google

Let’s visit …:

Let’s visit … Dihydrogen Monoxide Research Division

CRITICAL EVALUATION Why Evaluate What You Find on the Web?:

CRITICAL EVALUATION Why Evaluate What You Find on the Web? Anyone can put up a web page Many pages not updated No quality control most sites not “peer-reviewed” less trustworthy than scholarly publications

Before you click to view the page...:

Before you click to view the page... Look at the URL - personal page or site ? ~ or % or users or members Domain name appropriate for the content ? Restricted: edu, gov, mil, a few country codes (ca) Unrestricted: com, org, net, most country codes (us, uk) Published by an entity that makes sense ? News from its source? www. nytimes .com Advice from valid agency? www. nih .gov/ www.nimh. nih .gov/

Scan the perimeter of the page:

Scan the perimeter of the page Can you tell who wrote it ? name of page author organization, institution, agency you recognize Credentials for the subject matter ? Look for links to: “About us” “Philosophy” “Background” “Biography” Is it recent or current enough ? Look for “last updated” date

Examine the content:

Examine the content Text possibly forged ? why not a link to published version ? Sources documented with links, footnotes, etc.? do the links work ? Evidence of bias in text or sources ?

Do some detective work:

Do some detective work Search the URL in Click on “Overview” Who links to the site? Who owns the domain? What did the site look like in the past? (Wayback Machine)

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Which blogs link to it? What do they say? Try the URL in Google Blog Search See what links are in Google’s “Similar pages” Look up the page author in Google

Does it all add up ?:

Does it all add up ? Was the page put on the web to inform ? persuade ? sell ? as a parody or satire ? Is it appropriate for your purpose?

Try evaluating some sites...:

Try evaluating some sites... Search a controversial topic in Google nuclear armageddon prions danger “stem cells” abortion Scan the first two pages of results Visit one or two sites evaluate their quality and reliability

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