Introduction of Entomology & Mosquitoes differentiation

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Dr. Sanat Rathod M.D. PSM Government Medical College Bhavnagar


2 Introduction: The study of diseases caused by arthropods Entomo (gr) = ‘segmented’ logy= ‘study’ Arthron = ‘jointed’ Poda = ‘foot’ Arthropods: largest phylum in the animal kingdom B/L symmetrical segmented body, supported by exoskeleton(chitin), do not have bones, but the hard outer covering supports the muscles. The appendages are jointed . The body is formed of a number of segments .

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4 Characters: Insecta Arachnida Crustacea Body division: Head Thorax & Abdomen Cephalo-thorax & Abdomen Cephalo-thorax & Abdomen Legs: 3 pairs 4 pairs 5 pairs Antennae: 1 pair - 2 pairs Wings: 1 pair or Wingless - - Habitat: Land Land Water

Medical Entomology:

Medical Entomology Branch of preventive Medicine A study of the arthropods of Medical importance is known as Medical Entomology.

Why study of this is important?:

Why study of this is important ? 1 Mosquito Malaria, Filaria, JE, Dengue Fever, Chikungunya 2 Housefly Typhoid, Cholera, Diarrhea & Dysentery, Poliomyelitis, Gastroenteritis, Trachoma 3 Itch Mite Scabies 4 Cyclops Guinea worm disease 5 Sand fly Kala-azar 6 Tsetse fly Sleeping sickness 7 Louse Epidemic Typhus 8 Rat flea Bubonic Plague 9 Reduvig bug Chagas disease 10 Hard tick Tick typhus, Viral encephalitis 11 Soft Tick Q fever, Relapsing fever

Transmission of Arthropod borne diseases:

Transmission of Arthropod borne diseases Transmissions Direct Contact From man to man Scabies pediculosis Mechanical Diarrhea Dysentery Typhoid Trachoma Biological Propagative Only multiplication No developmental Plague bacilli in rat flea Cyclo propagative Multiplication developmental Malaria parasites in mosquito Cyclodevelopmental No multiplication developmental Filaria parasite In mosquito

Mosquitoes :

8 Mosquitoes

General Features of Mosquito:

General Features of Mosquito 9

General features:

General features Body consist of 3 parts: Head : Thorax : Large & rounded in appearance. Bears pair of wings dorsally which produces buzzing noise. Three pair of legs ventrally. Abdomen : Long & narrow, composed of 10 segment, last two segments are modified to form external genitalia. 10 eyes

Life history of mosquito:

Life history of mosquito 11


Eggs Anopheles single boat shaped lateral floats 12

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2 Aedes Cigar shaped , Laid down singly, no lateral floats 13


Eggs………. 3. Culex small clusters: RAFT 4. Mansonia lays her eggs in star shaped clusters , attached to the under surface of certain aquatic plants. 14 The period that elapses from the moment of blood meal until the eggs are laid is called “ gonotrophic cycle” about 48 hours. Egg stage of mosquito lasts for 1-2 days


15 Eggs: Anopheles Aedes Culex


Larva The larva is a free swimming creature with an elongated body divisible into head, thorax & abdomen. It feeds on algae, bacteria, and vegetable matters. Passes through 4 stages of growth called Instars with moulting between each stage. 16

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Anopheles larva : Floats horizontally surface feeder very active -swift movement No ST , but breathing apparatus consist of parallel air tube at the tail end. Culicines Larva : head downwards, slower with snake like movement long narrow ST 17 Larval stage occupies: 2 days in anopheles & 5-7 days in Culicines


Pupa The pupa is comma shaped in appearance with large rounded cephalothorax and a narrow abdomen. It represents the resting phase in the life history of mosquito. Doesn’t feed & prefer to stay quite at water surface. The pupal stage lasts 1-2 days 18

Adult Mosquitoes:

Adult Mosquitoes When development is complete, pupal skin split along the back & adult mosquito emerges. It rests for a while on the pupal skin to allow its wings to expand & harden & then flies away. The life cycle from the egg to adult is complete within 7-10 days. Normally adult mosquito lives for about 2 weeks. Males are generally short lived. 19

Anopheles Mosquito:

Anopheles Mosquito Spotted wings 20 Anopheles angle of 45* to the surface No buzzing sound

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21 Anopheles female Anopheles male Culex female Culex male

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Palpi long In both Anopheles male & female and short in Culicines female SPOTED WINGS 22 Anopheles 45* Antennae bushy

Palps are as long as the proboscis:

Palps are as long as the proboscis 23 Anopheles

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palps have white rings proboscis dark 24 Anopheles

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palmate hair on abdomen 25 Anopheles

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27 Siphon tube-broad & short

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Food Preference : it is both anthropophilic & zoophilic , a blood meal on the part of female Anophelines is essential for maturation of the ovum. Resting Habit : Endophilic , i.e. indoor resting habit for the purpose of digesting blood meal & for the development of the ovum. Flight: can cover long distance, about 0.75-1.5 km , it significant for practical control of mosquito vector. Life span: one month , hibernating mosquito lives longer about 6months 28 Anopheles

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Breeding Places: Prefers clean water Irrigation channel, River beds, Ponds, pools, lakes, spring, brackish water, burrow pit, fruit & vegetable garden and even s in Open overhead tanks or in wells. Time of biting : Evening or early part of night Feeding Habits : Only female bites, male never bites. 29 Anopheles

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30 Breeding habits: Anopheles

Bio-Ecological Characteristics of Principal Malaria Vectors in India:

Bio-Ecological Characteristics of Principal Malaria Vectors in India About 45 species of anopheles 7 are vectors of malaria An. Culicifacies: It is most important vector in malaria transmission in India & very widely distributed in RURAL area of North, South and Central India more zoophilic than anthropophilic, bite in Dusk, peak time is 10.30pm to12.30 midnight, survives for 4 weeks. Resting Habits: Predominantly indoor rester-cattle sheds and human dwellings and prefer pools with low disturbance places. 31

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2) An. Stephensi : it is normally vector for URBAN area, particularly in coastal region and prefer small collection of clean water, prefer human dwelling & cattle sheds bites soon after dusk, peak at 4 to 6 am. 3) An. Minimus : in N.E. states, North West Bengal 4) An. Fluviatilis : seen along Himalaya range seepage and in irrigation channels. 5) An. Dirus : deep forest in N.E. region. 6) An. Sundaicus : Andaman and Nicobar Island-breeds in brackish water. 7) An. Philippinensis : is the vector for the plains of West Bengal and N.E. region. 32


Culex hunch back Wings unspotted Buzzing noise 34 Culex

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proboscis and palps dark, palps short 36 Culex

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37 Culex

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Breeding places:

Breeding places It profusely breeds in dirty water collections contaminated with sewage. Stagnant drains Cesspools Septic tanks Burrow pits 39 Culex


40 Culex:

Time of biting:

Time of biting At night- enters the houses at dusk & reaches maximum density at midnight Peak time of biting is at midnight Site of biting – legs, below the knee 41 Culex

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Highly anthropophilic Dispersal is about 11 km , strong winged mosquito Average life span : 21 days The vector is mainly outdoo r resting and outdoor feeding. Diseases Bancroftian Filariasis ( Cu. Fatigans ) JE ( Cu. Vishnui ) West Nile fever Viral arthritis 42 Culex


Aedes Sits parallel to the surface White stripes on black body 43 Aedes

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44 Aedes

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45 Aedes

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46 Aedes

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47 Aedes

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48 Aedes

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50 Aedes Siphon tube-long & narrow


Aedes…. Because it bites vigorously and fearlessly to many persons, so it is also called as tiger mosquito Adult seek dark and quit places to rest in bedrooms, kitchen, on walls, furniture, hanging articles like clothing, ropes and closets Average survival for male is 20 days and for female 30 days. 51

Breeding places Aedes aegypti profusely breeds in Artificial accumulation of water :

Breeding places Aedes aegypti profusely breeds in Artificial accumulation of water Behind refrigetor & coolers, Storage tanks, Earthen pots and other receptacles with rain water, In flower vases, Tyres, Broken glasses, Plastic containers and tins which have been discarded. 52 Aedes


53 Aedes:

Time of biting:

Time of biting Day biters Do not fly more than 100 meter Mostly found in rainy water 54 Aedes

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Species A. aegypti and A. sentellaris : breeds in peri- domestic artificial collection of water. A. Albopictus : breeds in natural rather than artificial water collections. A. vittatus : seen outside India, not domestic mosquito. Diseases Dengue DHF Chikungunya fever Yellow fever 55 Aedes


Mansonia They breed on aquatic plants ( Pistia straitiotes ) for the supply of oxygen. Two species of the vector Mansoniodes uniformis and M. annulifera transmit Brugia malayi infection of Filariasis in India 56 mansonia


57 Mansonia:

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58 mansonia

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59 mansonia

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palps not more than 1/3 as long as proboscis, ‘club-like ’ 60 mansonia

Thank You:

Thank You 61

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