فصل ششم انواع تحقیق نظرخواهی E

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Methods of survey research:

Dr E brahimi Hadi taherpour kalantari P- hd studend of marketing management [email protected] Methods of survey research

Learning Objectives::

Learning Objectives: To understand the reason for the popularity of survey research. To learn about the type of errors in survey research. To learn about the types of surveys. To gain insigh into the factors that determine the choice of particular survey methods.

Survey::

Survey: Surveys often attemt to obtain infarmation from a representative cross section of a target population.

Why those survey research popularited?:

Why those survey research popularited ? Managers need to know WHY do or do not do something. Managers need to know HOW decisions are made. Managers need to know WHO.

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The type of errors in survey research.

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Measurment error Surrogate information error Processing error Response bias NonResponse bias Measurment instrument bias Iinterviwer error Total survey error Random error Selection error Frame error Population specification error Sample design error Systematic error

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Random error: error that result from chance variation. (chance varition : difference between the sample value and the true value of the population mean.

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Systematic error : Error that results from problems or flaws in the execution of the research design, some times called non-sampling error.

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Sample design error : Systematic error that result from an error in the sample design or sampling procedures.

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Frame error : This error result from the use of an incomplete or inaccurtate sampling frame.

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Population specification error results from an incorrect definition of the universe or population from which the sample is to be selected.

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Selection error results from adopting incomplete or improper sampling procedures or not properly following appropriate selection procedures.

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Measurement error occurs when there is a discrepancy between the information being sought and the information actuall y obtained.

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Surrogate information error results from a discrepancy between the information actually required to solve a problem and the information sough by the researcher.

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Interviewer error occurs when an interviewer influences a respondent to give untrue or inaccurete answers.

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Measurement instrument bias is caused by problems within the questionnaire itself.

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Processing error results from mistakes in the transfer of information from survey documents to the computer.

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Non-response bias occurs when a particular individual in a sample cannot be reached or refuses to participate in the survey.

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Response bias error that results from the tendency of people to answer a question incorrectly through either deliberate falsification or unconscious misrepresentation.

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Processing error : That results from the incorrect transfer of information from a servey document to a computer.

Several types of traditional surveys::

Several types of traditional surveys: Door-to-door interviews Mall-intercept interviews Executive interviews Central-location telephone interviews Computer assisted telephone interviews(CATI) Self administered questionnaires Mail surveys: ad hoc (one shot) & mail panel

The factors thet determine the choise of methods::

The factors thet determine the choise of methods: The degree of sampling precision required Budget size whether respondents need to react The quality of data required The length of the questionnaire Degree of structure of the questionnaire The time available to complete the survey.