Higher Education in India

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Higher Education in India : Challenges :

Higher Education in India : Challenges A Presentation by Dr. Anupama Saxena Associate Professor and Head, Department of Political Science, Guru Ghaidas Univesity , Bilaspur

Structure of the Presentation:

Structure of the Presentation India’s Potential to become a global leader in 2050 , Higher Education is one of the important tools in achieving this objective. Quality, Relevance and Access are three important aspects of Indian Higher Education today. Brief analysis of status of Indian Higher Education on these three aspects. Challenges and suggestions. Feedback & Discussion

The Changing Global Order:

The Changing Global Order China seems likely to have overtaken the US by 2020 .India could also overtake the US by 2050. India will become the world’s fifth largest consumer market by 2025 from 12th position now(Consultancy Deloitte ) Education sector is crucial for in the global knowledge economy.

India’s demographic dividend :

India’s demographic dividend by 2050 the percentage of people above the age of 65 , USA : 39% Germany : 53% Japan : 67% India : 19% ( Above age 60) an (International Labor Organization paper,2009)

Supply to Market:

Supply to Market Engineers and Scientist India and China : 5 Lacs USA : 60,000 Life Sciences Young Researchers India and China : 10.6 Lacs ( 34% rise) USA : 7,6 Lacs (11% drop)

Quality, Relevance and Access:

Quality, Relevance and Access

Quality Assurance Measures:

Quality Assurance Measures NAAC UGC IQAC Evaluation Indicators Quantification of the Quality of Physical Resources and Human Resources

Quality of Institutions:

Quality of Institutions IIM Ahmedabad , Financial Times global business school rankings at 11 and ISB Hyderabad secured 13 th . C urrently, not a single Indian institution figures in the list of the world's top 200 universities. As per NAAC website on 4.6.2010, the total number of Accredited Colleges in India stands at 3492 out of more than 20000 in total. 134 Universities.

Quality of Research :

Quality of Research India's impact (average number of citations per paper) has not yet reached the world average within most scientific fields.(2008:Thomson Reuters ) Research papers published during 1998–2007 and cited at least 100 times by end of 2009 India : 776 China : 2260 China 2 in 1998 to 93 2007 in Nature India 2 in 1998 to 18 in 2007 in Nature Chinese authors have been able to place their papers in high impact journals such as Nature and Science far more often than Indian authors


Patents Indian firms and scientists filed one-tenth(761) of the patent applications filed by their Chinese counterparts(7946) . China ranked fifth in the list of top ten patnt filing nations , India No where. USA (45790) Ist Rank (Geneva Bases World Intellectual Property Organisation 2009)

Relevance :

Relevance NASSCOM report 2011 25 percent of technical graduates and 10-15 percent of regular graduates are employable. What skills are missing? Interestingly, not technical skills – it is the professional skills and the soft skills that show the greatest disconnect for employers. Among the most important skills sought after by Indian employers are: integrity, reliability, teamwork, willingness to learn, entrepreneurship, and communication skills. Employers are reporting a significant skills gap on those dimensions. The report also points to a gap in higher-order analytical and creative skills.


Access GER : In Percentage Competition for seats is cutthroat India : 12 developed countries : 45 China : 22 global average : 23 Target XI Plan : 15 target 2020 : 30 SC/ST/OBC :6-8 RURAL:URBAN 6:20 20% is required to become an economically advanced nation India currently has 480 universities and 22,000 colleges. In the next 10 years, it will need 700 new universities and 35,000 new colleges. 470,000 students taking the IIT joint entrance examination in 2010 and only 13,104 qualifying. 241,000 students applied for roughly 2,400 IIM seats. The elite IITs (Indian Institute of Technology) and IISs (Indian Institute of Science ) contribute less than 1% of graduates, while NITs have 2% of the students ( Barnerjee and Muley , 2007)

Gap in Supply and Demand:

Gap in Supply and Demand yearly$4 billion is spent on fees by Indian students for studying abroad. Indians are now the second-largest foreign student population in America, after the Chinese, 10-11 ,11% increase has been registered. undergraduate enrolment has grown by more than 20 percent in the past few years in USA

Slide 14:

Quality, Relevance and Access are Output and Input is required for the output The exercises of bringing quality are have remained on paper The concept of quality is very isolated from our context

Spending in Higher Education:

Spending in Higher Education 1950 : 0.9 % of GNP 1980 : 1 % mid-1990s : 0.4 % Current : 0.7% China :1.5 % USA : 2.9% UK : 1.3% United States : US$ 250 billion for Research China : US$60 billion India : US$8 billion the budget of the top-ranked Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) was "100 times greater in terms of the investment and research alone then IIT Madras


Challenges lack of quality faculty at university level :51% teaching posts are lying vacant in universities low quality of research and pedagogical innovation, lack of accountability and incentives among teachers, system of evaluation which encourages rote learning, Governance structures of universities which make innovations difficult, system of affiliated colleges Social and Political Factors

Suggestions ( Quality):

Suggestions ( Quality) Existing universities: revise curricula, follow course credit system, promote research, performance incentives to faculty. 􀂃 Colleges: Replace affiliation system with autonomy to top colleges, remodel some into community colleges, and establish a Central Board of Undergraduate Education. 􀂃 Allow institutions to set their own targets and achieve those in a specified time frame. Reform the curricula based on principles of mobility and academic depth. Universities should have rich undergraduate programmes. 􀂃 Optimise size of state universities.

Other Suggestions:

Other Suggestions Address the problem of politicisation of universities. Need for exclusion of politicians and limited representation of government in governance structures. Government funding should be 1.5% of GDP by 2012 Internal Democratization

Suggestions( Access):

Suggestions( Access) Expand the number of universities to 1,500 by establishing 50 National Universities and giving autonomy to individual colleges or clusters of colleges, with proven track record. 􀂃 Give admission without taking into account a student’s ability to pay. Have a National Scholarship Scheme and allow institutions to set their own fees if at least two banks are willing to give a loan without any collateral. 􀂃 Address disparities of income, gender, region by creating deprivation index.

Foreign Universities Bill:

Foreign Universities Bill Will allow foreign universities to set up campuses in India without any Indian Partner

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