Paralanguage_1ppt-1

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Paralanguage: Nonverbal Communication:

Paralanguage: Nonverbal Communication “People are more frightened of being lonely than of being hungry, or being deprived of sleep, or of having their sexual needs unfulfilled” (Frieda Fromm Reichmenn).

Paralanguage::

Paralanguage: Communication by means other than language .

Paralanguage includes:

Paralanguage includes Facial expressions Tones of voice Gestures Eye contact Spatial arrangements Patterns of touch Expressive movements Silence

Paralanguage: refers to all nonverbal communication actions (Kinesics and Proxemics):

Paralanguage : refers to all nonverbal communication actions (Kinesics and Proxemics)

Paralanguage includes intentional and unintentional nonverbal messages :

Paralanguage i ncludes intentional and unintentional nonverbal messages

Paralanguage may be::

Paralanguage may be: Complementary Unconscious Learned

Universals and Cultural Variations:

Universals and Cultural Variations eyebrow flash, the nose wrinkle basic emotions: --happiness, sadness, disgust, fear, anger, and surprise

The functions of nonverbal communication :

The functions of nonverbal communication To repeat what was said verbally To complement what was said verbally To contradict what was said verbally To substitute for what would be said verbally To regulate and manage the communication event

Nonverbal communication divided into:

Nonverbal communication divided into Kinesic and Proxemic acts Kinesics: The study of nonverbal gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, and body posture Proxemics: The study of the use of space, touch, and distance as features of nonverbal communication.

Inborn Nonverbal Actions:

Inborn Nonverbal Actions Smiling Crying

Universality versus Relativism:

Universality versus Relativism Birdwhistell (1970) Emblems: are gestures understood by participant of a communicative community to express a specific meaning

Cultural Specific Emblems:

Cultural Specific Emblems Can you guess what the following gestures from Japan, France and Iran mean?

Could reflect social status and gender: In North America:

Could reflect social status and gender: In North America Dominance versus subordination ---more space--- take less space ---stare at others --- less eye contact --- smile more-- smile less

Dangers of overgeneralizations:

Dangers of overgeneralizations Cannot assume everybody in a culture behaves the same way Infrequent actions should not be used to characterize a culture We should not ignore that nonverbal behaviors are part of complex communication processes

How do we communicate with those we don’t know?:

How do we communicate with those we don’t know? Leonard Zunin (The First Four Minutes, 1972) Three common behaviours: Which side of the path” look I acknowledge you” look Look—away priority”

Proxemics:

Proxemics Edward, T Hall in 1963 refers to touch and issues of personal space

Distance Between Faces Tone of Voice Type of Message very close (3-6 inches) soft whisper top secret or sensual close (8-12 inches) audible whisper very confidential neutral (20-36 inches) soft voice, low volume personal subject matter neutral (4.5-5 feet) full voice non-personal information across the room (8-20 feet) loud voice talking to a group stretching the limit :

Distance Between Faces Tone of Voice Type of Message very close (3-6 inches) soft whisper top secret or sensual close (8-12 inches) audible whisper very confidential neutral (20-36 inches) soft voice, low volume personal subject matter neutral (4.5-5 feet) full voice non-personal information across the room (8-20 feet) loud voice talking to a group stretching the limit

All nonverbal communication is best understood within cultural context:

All nonverbal communication is best understood within cultural context Body movements Eye contact Facial expressions Touch

Silence also part of nonverbal communication:

Silence also part of nonverbal communication Sends nonverbal clues during communication Culturally determined Igbo s of Nigeria

Do you think that by studying nonverbal patterns can help us identify our own ethnocentric attitudes? :

Do you think that by studying nonverbal patterns can help us identify our own ethnocentric attitudes?

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