Amino Acids

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Amino Acids, Polypeptides and Proteins : 

Amino Acids, Polypeptides and Proteins

I. -Amino acids : 

I. -Amino acids Naturally occurring amino acids has an amino group (NH2) to the carboxyl group (COOH).They are bifunctional and classified as:a. Neutral: having equal number of amino and carboxyl group.b. Acidic: two carboxyl and one amino group.c. Basic: two amino and one carboxyl group.

I. -Amino acids : 

I. -Amino acids A. Example (glycine)2-aminoethanic acid (alanine)2-aminopropanoic acid (aspartic acid)2-aminobutane-1,4-dioic acid (lysine)2,6-diaminohexanoic acid

I. -Amino acids : 

I. -Amino acids B. Preparation 1. From -chlorocarboxylic acid

I. -Amino acids : 

I. -Amino acids B. Preparation 2. From aldehyde or ketone: Strecker synthesis

I. -Amino acids : 

I. -Amino acids C. Zwitterions formation Although the amino acids are commonly shown as containing an amino group and a carboxyl group, H2NCHRCOOH, certain properties, both physical and chemical, are not consistent with this structure: 1. On contrast to amines and carboxylic acids, the amino acids are non-volatile crystalline solid which melt with decomposition at fairly high temperatures.

I. -Amino acids : 

I. -Amino acids C. Zwitterions formation (cont’d) 2. They are insoluble in non-polar solvents like petroleum ether, benzene, or ether and are appreciably soluble in water. 3. Their aqueous solutions behave like solutions of substances of high dipole moment.

I. -Amino acids : 

I. -Amino acids C. Zwitterions formation (cont’d) 4. Acidity and basicity constants are ridiculously low for –COOH and –NH2 groups. Glycine, e.g., has Ka = 1.6 x 10-10 and Kb = 2.5 x 10-12, whereas most carboxylic acids have Ka’s of about 10-5 and most aliphatic amines have Kb’s of about 10-4.

I. -Amino acids : 

I. -Amino acids C. Zwitterions formation (cont’d) All these properties are quite consistent with a dipolar ion structure for the amino acids. Since it exists as internal salt, known as zwitterion,in which both cation and anion are held togetherin the same unit.

I. -Amino acids : 

I. -Amino acids C. Zwitterions formation (cont’d) Example: glycine exists as Since the zwitterions are held by strong electrostaticattraction, thus m.p. and b.p. are high. Also, itexerts strong attraction to polar water, so it is highly soluble in water, but insoluble in non-polar solvent.

I. -Amino acids : 

I. -Amino acids C. Zwitterions formation (cont’d) Amino acid with equal number of amino and carboxyl group is neutral when dissolved in water, but in acidic solution, -COO- group is protonated (I.e. exists as a –COOH), and basic solution, -NH3+ group is free and exists as an –NH2. Therefore, the acidic group in amino acid is –NH3+ NOT –COOH. The basic group in amino acid is-COO- not –NH2.

I. -Amino acids : 

I. -Amino acids D. Isoelectric point and electrophoresis Amino acids, as a zwitterions, exhibits both acidic and basic properties in aqueous solutions. In aqueous solution, the ion exists in equilibrium with its cationic form and anionic form simultaneously:

I. -Amino acids : 

I. -Amino acids D. Isoelectric point and electrophoresis If an electric field is applied to an aqueous solution of an amino acid, whether there is a migration of the ion or not depends on the pH of the solution.In alkaline solution, the above equilibrium will shift to the left and the concentration of anion will exceed that of cation, and there will be a net migration of the amino acid towards the positive pole.

I. -Amino acids : 

I. -Amino acids D. Isoelectric point and electrophoresis In acidic solution, the above equilibrium will shift to the right and the concentration of cation will exceed that of anion, and there will be a net migration of the amino acid towards the negative pole.

I. -Amino acids : 

I. -Amino acids D. Isoelectric point and electrophoresis By adjusting the pH value of the aqueous solution of an amino acid, the concentration of cation can be made equal to that of anion, and there will be no net migration of the amino acid in an electric field. The pH value so adjusted in this case is known as the isoelectric point of the given amino acid. Isoelectric points are characteristic of amino acids. Therefore it is possible to separate different amino acids in a mixture by subjecting the mixture to an electric field and adjusting the pH value, This technique is known as electrophoresis.

I. -Amino acids : 

I. -Amino acids E. Optical isomerism All naturally occurring amino acids except glycine possess chiral / asymmetric carbon and are optically active.

II. Dipeptides and Polypeptides : 

II. Dipeptides and Polypeptides A. Constituent Proteins are high molecular weight compounds composing of -amino acids linked through amide formation between the carboxyl group of one acid and -amino group of the next. The linkage is called peptide linkage.

II. Dipeptides and Polypeptides : 

II. Dipeptides and Polypeptides A. Constituent A molecular weight of 10,000 is suggested as limit for polypeptides, while the molecular weight of protein can reach millions. The side chains of proteins molecule or polypeptide chain may associate together to give a special shape.

II. Dipeptides and Polypeptides : 

II. Dipeptides and Polypeptides B. Hydrolysis It can be brought about by refluxing protein with acid e.g. H2SO4 or by base e.g. Ba(OH)2, or by enzyme into a mixture of amino acid. The study of the amino acids so formed gives some information to the structure of their protein.Analysis of amino acids is by chromatogram. The spots are made visible by spraying the chromatogram with ninhydrin. The Rf value is then found and check against data book.

III. Nylon : 

III. Nylon It is synthetic polymer resulted from condensation polymerization with peptide linkage. A. Properties 1. Molecular weight of about 15,000 with m.p. about 260oC 2. Tough but elastic 3. Chemically resistant (but can be hydrolysed by acid or alkali)

III. Nylon : 

III. Nylon A. Properties 4. Can be spinned into threads due to the presence of cross-linked established through H-bond. Such cross-linkage strongly affect the properties of the products. More cross-linking will make iti. More flexibleii. More non-volatileiii. More insoluble

III. Nylon : 

III. Nylon B. UsesUsed in textile industry, making stocking, and as fishing line. C. TestHeat with soda lime:NH3 will produce and turn litmus paper blue.

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