CELL STRUCTURE

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Republic of the Philippines Laguna State Polytechnic University San Pablo Campus Del Remedio, San Pablo City College of Teacher Education Bachelor of Elementary Education :

Republic of the Philippines L aguna S tate P olytechnic U niversity San Pablo Campus Del Remedio , San Pablo City C ollege o f T eacher E ducation B achelor of E lementary Ed ucation

Good Day!!:

Good Day!!

CELL Any idea about Cell???:

CELL Any idea about Cell???

Structure of a Cell:

Structure of a Cell

Definition of Cell::

Definition of Cell: Cell is the basic unit of structure and function in living things. Smallest structural unit of an organism that is capable of independent functioning, consisting of one or more nuclei, cytoplasm, and various organelles, all surrounded by a semi permeable cell membrane. Each cell is a small container of chemicals and water wrapped in a membrane.

Definition of Cell::

Definition of Cell: Cell also contains organic and inorganic substances that are important for the various function of the cell and that is needed in our body. For Example: Water- it is most abundant of all compound in cells. It is important in the cell, because of its solvent power, capacity for heat, in relations to ion formation, and because of its density it allows life to continue in the deeper water.

CELL:

CELL PARTS OF A CELL

Cell/Plasma Membrane:

Cell/Plasma Membrane It provides the identity of the cell Outer membrane of cell that controls cellular traffic Contains proteins (left, gray) that span through the membrane and allow passage of substances to and from the cell

Cell/Plasma Membrane:

Cell/Plasma Membrane All cells and their protoplasmic contents are surrounded and protected by a thin layer called PLASMA MEMBRANE It is a thin limiting membrane that encloses the cell, defining the boundaries between extracellular and intracellular spaces

Cell Wall:

Cell Wall Most commonly found in plant cell, and extracellular structure surrounding the plasma membrane. The function of cell wall is protection, structural support and also it helps in filtering machine; it is also compose mainly of cellulose, except in the case of fungi and bacteria.

Cell Wall:

Cell Wall The Cell wall consists of several distinct layers those are the: 1. Primary Cell Wall- it is in the outer layer; it expand as the cell grows. 2.Secondary Cell Wall- develops inside the primary cell wall

Cell Wall:

Cell Wall This layer adds strength to the wall and both the primary and secondary cell walls are composed mainly of polysaccharide of cellulose. The cell walls remain intact even after the rest of the cell has died. It is typical of the cork cells which compose the wood of trees plant fibers and nut cells.

Cytoplasm:

Cytoplasm The jellylike material outside the cell nucleus in which the organelles are located It serve as the general storage and working area of the cell Protoplasm-translucent substance that constitutes the living matter of plant and animal cell; it is compose of proteins, fats and other molecules suspended in water, it includes nucleus and cytoplasm.

Endoplasmic Reticulum:

Endoplasmic Reticulum It is responsible for them manufacturing and storage of chemical compounds like glycogen, steroids and also the translation and transportation of protein It is also connected to nuclear membrane so as to make channel between the cytoplasm and the nucleus.

Endoplasmic Reticulum:

Endoplasmic Reticulum Winding network of membranes interconnected with each other. It provides channel through with transport the material can be effectively throughout the cytoplasm.

Two Portions make up the Endoplasmic Reticulum::

Two Portions make up the Endoplasmic Reticulum: Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum- This part of the endoplasmic reticulum is peppered with ribosome which function in the synthesis of proteins

Two Portions make up the Endoplasmic Reticulum::

Two Portions make up the Endoplasmic Reticulum: Ribosome's- protein factories of the cell It is a tiny dot like structure; this organelles are compose of nucleic acids and protein. Some cell contains a half a million of ribosome's; and also the synthesis of protein occurs on the ribosome's.

Mitochondria:

Mitochondria Also known as the power house of the cell It is spherical to rod shaped organelles with a double membrane They vary in number and shaped; they are the center of cellular respiration, a process in which energy rich adenosine triphosphate (ATP- is a coenzymes used as an energy carrier in the cells of all known organisms), and the high energy compounds in cells that functions in energy storage and transfer if produced.

Mitochondria:

Mitochondria Second largest organelle with unique genetic structure, spherical to rod shape organelles with a double membrane They are responsible for breaking down the complex carbohydrates and sugar molecules to simpler forms that the plant can use The inner membrane is infolded many tissues forming a series of projection called cristae- also energy producing chemical reactions

Golgi Apparatus:

Golgi Apparatus Also known as Golgi complex A membrane structure found un nucleus Is an organelle responsible for the processing and packaging of macromolecules such as protein and fats which are synthesized by the cell and prepares them for transportation.

Golgi Apparatus:

Golgi Apparatus Vesicles- form tiny membrane bound spheres The vesicles carry the protein to the plasma membrane. Its vesicle then joins with the plasma membrane and pours it contents of the cell.

Lysosomes:

Lysosomes It is also called cell vesicles (animal cell digest food through digestive enzymes) This vesicles present only in animal cells which are surrounded by membranes and contain hydrolytic enzymes that break down large organic molecules (protein,lipids,carbohydrateand nucleic acid)

Lysosomes:

Lysosomes Round organelles surrounded by the membrane and containing digestive enzymes Transport undigested material to cell membrane for removal This is where the digestion of cell nutrients take place

Peroxisomes:

Peroxisomes This organelle is responsible for protecting the cell from its own production of toxic hydrogen peroxide . Example: White Blood Cell produce hydrogen peroxide break down the hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen

Centrioles:

Centrioles In charged for the spindle formation and movement a rod shaped structure that appears during mitosis Like the lysosome, centrioles are absent in plant cell

Mitosis:

Mitosis Mitosis- is the division of cell nucleus; a process in which a cells chromosomes are divided prior to cytoplasmic division. These are granular bodies located just outside the nucleus and are involved in the movement of chromosomes during cell division

Plastids:

Plastids Is a large membrane bound organelles; it is absent in animal cell It occur as round or oval bodies that contains pigments and are absent in animal cell It is responsible for the photosynthetic activity and from the manufacture and storage of chemical compounds in plants

Two kinds of Plastids::

Two kinds of Plastids: Chloroplasts -chlorophyll - chromoplasts Leucoplasts

Chloroplasts:

Chloroplasts Chloroplast inside the plastid

Chloroplasts:

Chloroplasts Is the chromoplast containing the green coloring bodies called chlorophyll Chlorophyll- is a green pigment found in the chloroplast of higher plants and in cells of photosynthetic microorganisms, which is primarily involved and absorbing light for photosynthesis. Contain green chlorophyll where photosynthesis takes place It is usually found in plant cell

Chromoplasts:

Chromoplasts Contain red, yellow and orange pigments characteristics of carrots, flowers, tomatoes etc. Chromoplasts---plants----chloroplasts-----chlorophyll

Leucoplasts:

Leucoplasts Colorless plastids that serve as food storehouses in many plant cell Contain pigments for colorless appearance They may contain oil, starch grains, and protein as well as enzymes. e.g., starch grains in rice, potatoes, and radish

Vacuoles:

Vacuoles Fluid-filled, membrane-surrounded cavities inside a cell The vacuolar membrane regulates the molecular traffic between the vacuole and the cell substances. The vacuole fills with food being digested and waste material that is on its way out of the cell.

Vacuoles:

Vacuoles It is a large membrane bound compartments, which stores compounds and provides storage, excretory and secretory functions The membrane surrounding vacuole is called tonoplast- also responsible for separating the vacuolar contents from the cytoplasm in the cell.

Microfilaments:

Microfilaments It is a thin filament of the cytoskeleton and are responsible for structural support of the cell.

Micro tubules:

Micro tubules It is a straight, hollow, tubular cylinder, which make up the cytoskeleton. They are responsible for structural support and transport of the cell. The microtubules provide pathways for certain cellular molecules to move about.

Nucleus:

Nucleus Was the first organelle that biologists observed in a cell. Is a specialized spherical structure that is usually located near the center of the cell The nucleus plays many of the function of the cell, like controlling protein synthesis and contains DNA in chromosomes.

Nucleus:

Nucleus It is considered as one of the most conspicuous structural areas of the cell The nucleus plays the central role in controlling and directing both biochemical reactions that occur in the cell and reproduction of the cell The nucleus is surrounded by the nuclear membrane

The nucleus has the following parts: :

The nucleus has the following parts: Nuclear Membrane Membranes that surround the nucleus, separating it from the adjacent cytoplasm and forming a controlled avenue for the continuous interchange of materials between them. Numerous opening for nuclear traffic

Slide 40:

Nucleoplasm This is the fluid portion of the nucleus in which other structure are found It is protoplasmic substance enclosed by the nuclear membrane Nucleoplasm is rich in protein ng for nuclear traffic

Slide 41:

Nucleolus Is one part of chromatin that is condensed into a darker area It is also involved in the protein synthesis process Some cell have more than one nucleus or nucleolus One or more deeply stained spherical bodies containing RNA It is responsible for manufacturing and exporting ribosome—the precursors—of the particles—to the cytoplasm in which proteins will be synthesized

Chromosomes :

Chromosomes These are elongated, thread like bodies which are clearly visible only when the cell in undergoing division Are originally chromatin materials which contain hereditary information of the cell When the cells divides, the chromatin becomes visible as shortened strands

Chromosomes :

Chromosomes Contains genetic information A chromosome is composing of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) protein and bear in linear arrangement and the basic units of heredity called Genes which compose of DNA. Genes- are passed on from generation to generations in cells and thus determine the characteristics of cells and act as the units of control in different cell activities.

Difference between Animal and Plant Cell:

Difference between Animal and Plant Cell

Animal Cell Plant Cell:

Animal Cell Plant Cell

Animal Cell Plant Cell:

Animal Cell Plant Cell

Slide 47:

Plant and animal cell have some key similarities and noted some differences. Using the basic cell structure helps to understand how plant cells differ from animal cells. They do differ in important ways, as plant cells provide different functions for the plant, than animal cells provide for the body. Plant cells also are different from animal cells because they use photosynthesis to convert sunlight into needed food for the plant. Plant cells have chloroplasts, which has its own DNA, essentially directing the work of the chloroplasts.

Slide 48:

Plant cells have cell walls , which supports a rigid (rectangular) structure. These structures are composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and a variety of other materials. An animal cell does not have this cell wall; as such, the shape is more dynamic. With animal cells there is a diversity of shapes although most are roughly circular to maximize surface area. Plant cells have chlorophyll, the light-absorbing pigment required for photosynthesis. This pigment, which makes plants appear green, is contained in structures called chloroplasts .

Slide 49:

Plant cells have chlorophyll, the light-absorbing pigment required for photosynthesis. This pigment, which makes plants appear green, is contained in structures called chloroplasts . Similarly, chlorophyll containing plant cells go through both photosynthesis and cellular respiration , while animal cells only go through cellular respiration. Plants cells have a large, central vacuole . While animal cells may have one or more small vacuoles, they do not take up the volume that the central vacuole does (up to 90% of the entire cell volume!). The vacuole stores water and ions, and may be used for storage of toxins.

Slide 50:

Animal cells have centrioles , cilia (unicellular animal cell), and lysosomes. Plant cells have no need for centrioles because their spindle fibers connect to the cell wall. Animal cell do not have rigid cell walls like plant cell. This allows animal cell to form and adopt various shapes. Animal cells have one or more small vacuoles whereas plant cells have one large central vacuole that can take up to 90% of cell volume.

SUMMARY::

SUMMARY: Cell??? Cell is a combination of tissues and smallest structural unit of an organism that is capable of independent functioning, consisting of one or more nuclei, cytoplasm, and various organelles, all surrounded by a semi permeable cell membrane. Robert Hooke discover the cell and he was the first person use the word “cell” together with Theodore Schwann and Matthias Jacob Schleiden. The different parts of a cell are plasma membrane, cell wall, cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum with two (2) portions which are the rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and the parts are mitochondria, Golgi apparatus or the Golgi complex, lysosome, centrioles, plastids, chloroplast, chromoplast, leucoplast, vacuoles, microfilaments, microtubules, nucleus that contain the following parts: nuclear membrane, nucleoplasm, nucleolus and chromosomes. The animal and plant have a cell. They have some key similarities and differences noted. Using the basic cell structure we can easily understand how plant cells differ from animal cells.

REFERENCES::

REFERENCES : http://www.google.com.ph/ http://www.buzzle.com/articles/plant-cell-structure-and-parts.html http://www.smithlifescience.com/celltheory.htm http://www.wikipedia.org/ Basic Concepts in Biology- Penecilla®Formacion®Fandialan®Valmonte® Sandoval®Esmeralda® [email protected]

Prepared by: Charmaine Ann C. Dequillo Felie Amor Heramis Guided by: Mr. Aldrine L. Dellosa (LSPU-SPC: Part time Instructor):

Prepared by: Charmaine Ann C. Dequillo Felie Amor Heramis Guided by: Mr. Aldrine L. Dellosa (LSPU-SPC: Part time Instructor)

Thank You!!:

Thank You!! To God be the Glory… [email protected]

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