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Global Warming:

Global Warming an average increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth ’ s surface and in the troposphere1, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns

Causes :

Causes Burning of fossil fuels (Coal/Crude oil) Power plants  generate electricity Transportation-----fuels for transports (E.g. LPG, kerosene, fuel oil) Industrial processes (E.g. manufacture of cement, steel, aluminium)


Causes Other greenhouse gases emission Agriculture Forestry Other land uses Waste management

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Besides carbon dioxide, other gases such as methane, chlorofluorocarbons, nitrogen oxides and ozone also contribute to the greenhouse effect. Example : Using natural gas to cook CH 4 + 2O 2  CO 2 + 2H 2 O

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Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere ↓ Some infrared radiation is trapped ↓ Greenhouse effect Serious greenhouse effect Global Warming

How serious the problem is?...:

How serious the problem is?...

Increase in greenhouse gases:

Increase in greenhouse gases Concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is highly increasing by human activities → Leads to the increasing seriousness of global warming

Global surface temperatures:

Global surface temperatures increased about 0.6°C/century since the late19th century increased to 2°C/century over the past 25 years

Increase in Global temperatures:

Increase in Global temperatures

Temperature difference between different parts of atmosphere:

Temperature difference between different parts of atmosphere troposphere temperatures (the lowest 8 kilometers of the Earth's atmosphere) collected since 1979 also indicate warming Cooling effect in higher parts of the atmosphere: stratospheric temperatures have been decreasing

NOT globally uniform warming :

NOT globally uniform warming Warming parts: North America Eurasia Cooling parts: parts of the southeastern U.S.

Increasing temperature extremes:

Increasing temperature extremes Regions that have temperatures (1-3°C) warmer than the average: United States Most of the Europe Regions that have temperatures (1-3°C) cooler than the average: Australia

Regional Temperatures:

Regional Temperatures

Sea level rising:

Sea level rising rising at an average rate of 1 - 2 mm/year over the past 100 years

Environmental and Human Effects:

Environmental and Human Effects

Direct Temperature Effects:

Direct Temperature Effects Increase in average temperature More extreme heat waves during the summer; Less extreme cold spells during the winter Harmful to those with heart problems, asthma, the elderly, the very young and the homeless

Extreme Events:

Extreme Events Extreme Events: Heat waves; Cold waves; Storms; Floods and Droughts Global warming An increase in the frequency of extreme events More event-related deaths, injuries, infectious diseases, and stress-related disorders

Climate-sensitive diseases:

Climate-sensitive diseases Increase the risk of some infectious diseases [particularly that appear in warm areas; are spread by mosquitoes and other insects] E.g. Malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, encephalitis Algal blooms occur more frequently as temperatures warm (particularly in areas with polluted waters) Diseases (e.g. cholera) accompanying algal blooms become more frequent

Air Quality:

Air Quality An increase in the concentration of ground-level ozone Damage lung tissue Harmful for those with asthma and other chronic lung diseases

Food supply:

Food supply Rising temperatures and variable precipitation Decrease the production of staple foods in many of the poorest regions Increasing risks of malnutrition

Population displacement:

Population displacement Rising sea levels Increase the risk of coastal flooding (Necessitate population displacement) More than half of the world's population now lives within 60km of the sea. Most vulnerable regions: Nile delta in Egypt, the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta in Bangladesh, many small islands, such as the Maldives, the Marshall Islands and Tuvalu.

UV Exposure (Australia):

UV Exposure (Australia) Skin Cancer an abnormal growth of skin tissues. Premature aging make the skin thick, wrinkled, and leathery Cataracts No longer have transparent lenses in their eyes

UV Exposure (Australia):

UV Exposure (Australia) Other Eye Damages Skin cancer around the eyes Degeneration of the yellow spot Suppression of Immunity Overexposure to UV radiation  suppress proper functioning of the body's immune system and natural defenses of skin UV-B radiation weakens the immune system  increases the chance of infection and disease

Measures on controlling the problem:

Measures on controlling the problem Government * set some laws to limit the amount of pollutants produced by factories * develop the skills of using renewable fuels , e.g. solar energy, wind energy

Measures on controlling the problem:

* encourage the factories to replace fossil fuels by renewable fuels, which would not cause environmental pollution * carry out energy saving scheme → reduce the pollution produced by burning fossil fuels * build more plants → reduce the pollutants e.g. CO 2 Measures on controlling the problem

Measures on controlling the problem:

Measures on controlling the problem Citizens * reduce the use of plastic bags → as burning plastic emit CH4 * recycle the resources, e.g. plastic * reduce the use of sprays → as CFCs would be emitted out

Measures on controlling the problem:

Measures on controlling the problem * reduce the use of air-conditioner, which will emit CFCs * use public transportation instead of private cars → reduce the pollutants emitted by cars



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