Category: Education

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Definition WHO in 1972 proposed a uniform criterion and defined blindness as, “ Visual acuity of less than 3/60 ( Snellen ) or its equivalent”

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Visual impairment (or vision impairment ) is vision loss (of a person) to such a degree as to qualify as an additional support need through a significant limitation of visual capability resulting from either disease , trauma , or congenital or degenerative conditions that cannot be corrected by conventional means, such as refractive correction, medication, or surgery

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Other definitions of blindness in vogue are: Economic blindness: vision in better eye <6/60 to 3/60 Social blindness: Vision in better eye <3/60 to 1/ 60 Legal blindness: Vision in better eye <1/60 to perception light Total blindness : No light perception (PL - ve ).


incidence some type of visual problem in life see objects far away. reading small print. easily treated

vision loss is typical manifest :

vision loss is typical manifest best corrected visual acuity of less than 20/60, or significant central field defect, significant peripheral field defect including bilateral visual, field defect generalized contraction constriction of field, reduced peak contrast sensitivity with either of the above conditions.


TYPES Partially sighted Low vision Myopic hyperopic Legally blind Totally blind

Eye disorders:

Eye disorders retinal degeneration, albinism , cataracts , glaucoma , muscular problems , corneal disorders, diabetic retinopathy , brain and nerve disorders, or cortical visual impairment (CVI). congenital disorders , infection .

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American Medical Association 's Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment


CAUSES GENETIC FACTORS • Albinism • Aniridia • Color blindness • Glaucoma • Homocystinuria • Isolated familial congenital cataracts • Leber hereditary optic neuropathy • Marfan syndrome • Retinitis pigmentosa


acquired Amblyopia is reduced vision in an eye caused by lack of use of that eye in early childhood. Cataracts are cloudy areas in part or all of the lens of the eye

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Diabetic retinopathy occurs when the tiny blood vessels in the retina are damaged due to diabetes Glaucoma is an increase in pressure inside the eye

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Macular degeneration is a gradual and progressive deterioration of the macula , the most sensitive region of the retina Trachoma occurs when a very contagious microorganism

WHO Disability Sequence :

WHO Disability Sequence Disease ——> Impairment ——> Disability ——> HandicapTreatment


DIAGNOSIS ophthalmologist Visual acuity test. A person reads an eye chart to measure how well he or she sees at various distances. Visual field test. Ophthalmologists use this test to measure side, or peripheral, vision. Tonometry test. This test determines the fluid pressure inside the eye to evaluate for glaucoma

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eyeglasses, contact lenses, and eye drops or other medicines.


SURGERY cataracts (an artificial plastic lens ). Guide dogs . Braille allows . microscopic and telescopic glasses voice-recognition



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MANAGEMENT ISSUES SPECIFIC TO GENETICS genetic counseling genetics information patient’s understanding support to families

Nursing intervention :

Nursing intervention Promoting coping efforts promoting spatial orientation and mobility- Spatial Orientation and Mobility in Institutional Settings - promoting home and community-based care Teaching Patients Self-Care Community Programs and Services



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