Heart failure

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Heart Failure:

Heart Failure S. Soliman MD


Definition: A state in which the heart cannot provide sufficient cardiac output to satisfy the metabolic needs of the body It is commonly termed congestive heart failure (CHF) since symptoms of increase venous pressure are often prominent

Etiology :

Etiology It is a common end point for many diseases of cardiovascular system It can be caused by : - Inappropriate work load ( volume or pressure overload) - Restricted filling - Myocyte loss

Causes of left ventricular failure:

Causes of left ventricular failure • Volume over load : Regurgitate valve High output status • Pressure overload: Systemic hypertension Outflow obstruction • Loss of muscles: Post MI, Chronic ischemia Connective tissue diseases Infection, Poisons (alcohol,cobalt,Doxorubicin) • Restricted Filling: Pericardial diseases, Restrictive cardiomyopathy, tachyarrhythmia


Pathophysiology Hemodynamic changes Neurohormonal changes Cellular changes

Hemodynamic changes :

Hemodynamic changes From hemodynamic stand point HF can be secondary to systolic dysfunction or diastolic dysfunction

Neurohormonal changes:

Neurohormonal changes N/H changes Favorable effect Unfavor. effect  Sympathetic activity  HR , contractility, vasoconst.   V return,  filling Arteriolar constriction  After load  workload  O 2 consumption  Renin-Angiotensin – Aldosterone Salt & water retention  VR Vasoconstriction   after load  Vasopressin Same effect Same effect  interleukins &TNF May have roles in myocyte hypertrophy Apoptosis  Endothelin Vasoconstriction  VR  After load

Cellular changes:

Cellular changes  Changes in Ca +2 handling.  Changes in adrenergic receptors: • Slight  in α 1 receptors • β 1 receptors desensitization  followed by down regulation  Changes in contractile proteins  Program cell death ( Apoptosis )  Increase amount of fibrous tissue


Symptoms • SOB, Orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea • Low cardiac output symptoms • Abdominal symptoms: Anorexia,nausea, abdominal fullness, Rt hypochondrial pain

Physical Signs:

Physical Signs High diastolic BP & occasional decrease in systolic BP (decapitated BP) JVD Rales (Inspiratory) Displaced and sustained apical impulses Third heart sound – low pitched sound that is heard during rapid filling of ventricle

Physical signs (cont.):

Physical signs (cont.) Mechanism of S 3 sudden deceleration of blood as elastic limits of the ventricles are reached Vibration of the ventricular wall by blood filling Common in children

Physical signs (cont.):

Physical signs (cont.) Fourth heart Sound (S 4 ) - Usually at the end of diastole - Exact mechanism is not known Could be due to contraction of atrium against stiff ventricle Pale, cold sweaty skin

Framingham Criteria for Dx of Heart Failure:

Framingham Criteria for Dx of Heart Failure Major Criteria: PND JVD Rales Cardiomegaly Acute Pulmonary Edema S 3 Gallop Positive hepatic Jugular reflex ↑ venous pressure > 16 cm H 2 O

Dx of Heart Failure (cont.):

Dx of Heart Failure (cont.) Minor Criteria LL edema, Night cough Dyspnea on exertion Hepatomegaly Pleural effusion ↓ vital capacity by 1/3 of normal Tachycardia 120 bpm Weight loss 4.5 kg over 5 days management

Forms of Heart Failure :

Forms of Heart Failure Systolic & Diastolic High Output Failure Pregnancy, anemia, thyrotoxisis, A/V fistula, Beriberi, Pagets disease Low Output Failure Acute large MI, aortic valve dysfunction--- Chronic

Forms of heart failure ( cont.):

Forms of heart failure ( cont.) Right vs Left sided heart failure: Right sided heart failure : Most common cause is left sided failure Other causes included : Pulmonary embolisms Other causes of pulmonary htn. RV infarction MS Usually presents with: LL edema, ascites hepatic congestion cardiac cirrhosis (on the long run)

Differential diagnosis :

Differential diagnosis Pericardial diseases Liver diseases Nephrotic syndrome Protein losing enteropathy

Laboratory Findings :

Laboratory Findings Anemia Hyperthyroid Chronic renal insuffiency, electrolytes abnormality Pre-renal azotemia Hemochromatosis


Electrocardiogram Old MI or recent MI Arrhythmia Some forms of Cardiomyopathy are tachycardia related LBBB → may help in management

Chest X-ray:

Chest X-ray Size and shape of heart Evidence of pulmonary venous congestion (dilated or upper lobe veins → perivascular edema) Pleural effusion


Echocardiogram Function of both ventricles Wall motion abnormality that may signify CAD Valvular abnormality Intra-cardiac shunts

Cardiac Catheterization:

Cardiac Catheterization When CAD or valvular is suspected If heart transplant is indicated


TREATMENT Correction of reversible causes Ischemia Valvular heart disease Thyrotoxicosis and other high output status Shunts Arrhythmia A fib, flutter, PJRT Medications Ca channel blockers, some antiarrhythmics

Diet and Activity:

Diet and Activity Salt restriction Fluid restriction Daily weight (tailor therapy) Gradual exertion programs

Diuretic Therapy:

Diuretic Therapy The most effective symptomatic relief Mild symptoms HCTZ Chlorthalidone Metolazone Block Na reabsorbtion in loop of henle and distal convoluted tubules Thiazides are ineffective with GFR < 30 --/min

Diuretics (cont.):

Diuretics (cont.) Side Effects Pre-renal azotemia Skin rashes Neutropenia Thrombocytopenia Hyperglycemia ↑ Uric Acid Hepatic dysfunction

Diuretics (cont.):

Diuretics (cont.) More severe heart failure → loop diuretics Lasix (20 – 320 mg QD), Furosemide Bumex (Bumetanide 1-8mg) Torsemide (20-200mg) Mechanism of action : Inhibit chloride reabsortion in ascending limb of loop of Henle results in natriuresis, kaliuresis and metabolic alkalosis Adverse reaction: pre-renal azotemia Hypokalemia Skin rash ototoxicity

K+ Sparing Agents:

K + Sparing Agents Triamterene & amiloride – acts on distal tubules to ↓ K secretion Spironolactone (Aldosterone inhibitor) recent evidence suggests that it may improve survival in CHF patients due to the effect on renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system with subsequent effect on myocardial remodeling and fibrosis

Inhibitors of renin-angiotensin- aldosterone system:

Inhibitors of renin-angiotensin- aldosterone system Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is activation early in the course of heart failure and plays an important role in the progression of the syndrome Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors Angiotensin receptors blockers Spironolactone

Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors:

Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors They block the R-A-A system by inhibiting the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II → vasodilation and ↓ Na retention ↓ Bradykinin degradation ↑ its level → ↑ PG secretion & nitric oxide Ace Inhibitors were found to improve survival in CHF patients Delay onset & progression of HF in pts with asymptomatic LV dysfunction ↓ cardiac remodeling

Side effects of ACE inhibitors:

Side effects of ACE inhibitors Angioedema Hypotension Renal insuffiency Rash cough

Angiotensin II receptor blockers:

Angiotensin II receptor blockers Has comparable effect to ACE I Can be used in certain conditions when ACE I are contraindicated (angioneurotic edema, cough)

Digitalis Glycosides (Digoxin, Digitoxin):

Digitalis Glycosides (Digoxin, Digitoxin) The role of digitalis has declined somewhat because of safety concern Recent studies have shown that digitals does not affect mortality in CHF patients but causes significant Reduction in hospitalization Reduction in symptoms of HF

Digitalis (cont.) Mechanism of Action:

Digitalis (cont.) Mechanism of Action +ve inotropic effect by ↑ intracellular Ca & enhancing actin-myosin cross bride formation (binds to the Na-K ATPase → inhibits Na pump → ↑ intracellular Na → ↑ Na-Ca exchange Vagotonic effect Arrhythmogenic effect

Digitalis Toxicity:

Digitalis Toxicity Narrow therapeutic to toxic ratio Non cardiac manifestations Anorexia, Nausea, vomiting, Headache, Xanthopsia sotoma, Disorientation

Digitalis Toxicity:

Digitalis Toxicity Cardiac manifestations Sinus bradycardia and arrest A/V block (usually 2 nd degree) Atrial tachycardia with A/V Block Development of junctional rhythm in patients with a fib PVC’s, VT/ V fib (bi-directional VT)

Digitalis Toxicity Treatment:

Digitalis Toxicity Treatment Hold the medications Observation In case of A/V block or severe bradycardia → atropine followed by temporary PM if needed In life threatening arrhythmia → digoxin-specific fab antibodies Lidocaine and phenytoin could be used – try to avoid D/C cardioversion in non life threatening arrhythmia

β Blockers:

β Blockers Has been traditionally contraindicated in pts with CHF Now they are the main stay in treatment on CHF & may be the only medication that shows substantial improvement in LV function In addition to improved LV function multiple studies show improved survival The only contraindication is severe decompensated CHF


Vasodilators Reduction of afterload by arteriolar vasodilatation (hydralazin)  reduce LVEDP, O 2 consumption,improve myocardial perfusion,  stroke volume and COP Reduction of preload By venous dilation ( Nitrate)  ↓ the venous return  ↓ the load on both ventricles. Usually the maximum benefit is achieved by using agents with both action.

Positive inotropic agents:

Positive inotropic agents These are the drugs that improve myocardial contractility ( β adrenergic agonists, dopaminergic agents, phosphodiesterase inhibitors), dopamine, dobutamine, milrinone, amrinone Several studies showed ↑ mortality with oral inotropic agents So the only use for them now is in acute sittings as cardiogenic shock

Anticoagulation (coumadine):

Anticoagulation (coumadine) Atrial fibrillation H/o embolic episodes Left ventricular apical thrombus


Antiarrhythmics Most common cause of SCD in these patients is ventricular tachyarrhythmia Patients with h/o sustained VT or SCD → ICD implant

Antiarrhythmics (cont.):

Antiarrhythmics (cont.) Patients with non sustained ventricular tachycardia Correction of electrolytes and acid base imbalance In patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy → ICD implant is the option after r/o acute ischemia as the cause In patients wit non ischemic cardiomyopathy management is ICD implantation

New Methods:

New Methods Implantable ventricular assist devices Biventricular pacing (only in patient with LBBB & CHF) Artificial Heart

Cardiac Transplant:

Cardiac Transplant It has become more widely used since the advances in immunosuppressive treatment Survival rate 1 year 80% - 90% 5 years 70%


Prognosis Annual mortality rate depends on patients symptoms and LV function 5% in patients with mild symptoms and mild ↓ in LV function 30% to 50% in patient with advances LV dysfunction and severe symptoms 40% – 50% of death is due to SCD

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