OINTMENTS AND CREAMS BY sajjad lcps 03006389123

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OINTMENTS AND CREAMS :

OINTMENTS AND CREAMS

OINTMENTS:

OINTMENTS “ OINTMENTS ARE SEMISOLID DOSAGE FORMS INTENDED FOR EXTERNAL APPLICATION TO SKIN OR MUCOUS MEMBRANE ” EITHER MEDICATED OR NON MEDICATED .

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. MEDICATED EITHER DISSOLVED OR DISPERSED IN A VEHICLE AS FINE POWDER e.g STEROIDS. . UNMEDICATED UNMEDICATED OINTMENTS ARE USED FOR PHYSICAL EFFECTS SUCH AS PROTECTANTS or LUBRICANTS

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. OINTMENT BASES OINTMENT BASES ARE CLASSIFIED INTO FOUR GENERAL GROUPS. OLEAGINOUS BASES . . . . . ABSORPTION BASES. WATER-REMOVABLE BASES. WATER-SOLUBLE BASES.

OLEAGINOUS BASES:

OLEAGINOUS BASES (HYDROCARBON BASES) . . . . ON APPLICATION TO SKIN THEY HAVE AN EMOLLIENT EFFECT. PROTECT AGAINST ESCAPE OF MOISTURE. THEY ARE EFFECTIVE AS OCCLUSIVE DRESSINGS. IMMISCIBLE WITH WATER AND DIFFICULT TO WASH OFF.

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. THEY CAN REMAIN ON SKIN FOR LONGER PERIODS WITHOUT DRYING OUT. WATER AND AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS IN SMALL AMOUNTS CAN BE INCORPORATED WITH SMALL DIFFICULTY. . . WHEN POWDERED SUBSTANCES ARE TO BE INCORRPORATED LIQUID PETROLATUM IS USED AS LEVIGATING AGENT.

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. THEY INCLUDE: . PETROLATUM . WHITE PETROLATUM . YELLOW OINTMENT WHITE OINTMENT .

ABSORPTION BASES:

ABSORPTION BASES TWO TYPES THOSE THAT PERMIT INCORPORATION OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS RESULTING IN FORMATION OF W/O EMULSIONS . . THOSE THAT ARE ALREADY W/O EMULSIONS AND PERMIT INCORPORATION OF ADDITIONAL QUANTITY OF AQUEOUS SOLUTION .

PROPERTIES OF ABSORPTION BASES:

PROPERTIES OF ABSORPTION BASES . THESE BASES MAY BE USED AS EMOLLIENT . THEY DO NOT PROVIDE DEGREE OF OCCLUSION THESE BASES ARE NOT EASY TO REMOVE FROM SKIN SINCE THE EXTERNAL PHASE OF EMULSION IS OLEAGINOUS . DIFFICULT TO WATER WASHING .

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THEY PERMIT INCORPORATION OF AQUEOUS SOLUTION RESULTING IN FORMATION OF W/O EMULSION. THEY FORM A GREASY FILM ON SKIN SURFACE THOSE THAT ARE ALREADY W/O EMULSION,THEY PERMIT SMALL QUANTITIES OF AQUEOUS SOLUTION TO BE INCORPORATED. . . .

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THEY INCLUDE : . LANOLIN ANHYDROUS LANOLIN COLD CREAM . . .

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WATER REMOVABLE BASES (EMULSIFYING BASES) THEY ARE OIL IN WATER EMULSIONS HAVING AN EMULSIFIER WHICH MAKES THEM READILY MISCIBLE WITH WATER. THEY MAY BE DILUTED WITH WATER OR AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS. . . BECAUSE OF THEIR SURFACE ACTIVE PROPERTY THEY FACILITATE CONTACT b/w SKIN AND MEDICAMENT. .

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READILY WATER WASHABLE . THEY INCLUDE: . HYDROPHILLIC OINTMENTS . VANISHING CREAMS .

WATER SOLUBLE BASES:

WATER SOLUBLE BASES UNLIKE OTHER BASES THEY CONTAIN ONLY WATER SOLUBLE COMPONENTS (GREASELESS BASES) . THEY ARE COMPLETELY WATER WASHABLE . AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS CAN NOT BE INCORPORATED EFFICIENTLY BECAUSE THEY SOFTEN GREATLY WITH WATER ADDITION .

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THEY MOSTLY ARE USED FOR INCORPORATION OF SOLID SUBSTANCES . THESE BASES ARE USED FOR LOCAL ANAETHETICS AND ARE USED WHEN EASY WASHING FROM SKIN IS REQUIRED . THEY INCLUDE: . PEG OINTMENT .

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SELECTION OF APPROPRIATE BASE DEPENDS UPON PURPOSE FOR WHICH OINTNENT IS GOING TO BE APPLIED . DESIRED RELEASE OF DRUG SUBSTANCE FROM OINTMENT BASE DESIRABILITY OF TOPICAL ABSORPTION . . DESRABILITY OF OCCLUSION OF MOISTURE FROM SKIN . STABILITY OF DRUG IN OINTMENT BASE . DESIRABILITY OF SURFACE TO WHICH IT IS TO BE APPLIED .

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EQUALLY EFFICIENT ON DRY AND OILY SKIN SHOULD HAVE A SUITABLE PH . . NO DEHYDRATING EFFECT NON IRRITANT AND NON SENSITISING . . COMPATIBLE WITH A LARGE NUMBER OF DRUGS . MISCIBLE WITH SKIN SECRETIONS AND EXCRETIONS e.g SEBUM ,SWEAT etc .

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PREPARATON OF OINTMENTS TWO GENERAL METHODS DEPENDING PRIMARILY ON NATURE OF INGREDIENTS AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CONSTITUENS OF BASE . INCORPORATION FUSION . .

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INCORPORATION OF SOLIDS INCORPORATION OF LIQUIDS INCORPORRATION

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INCORPORATION THE COMPONENTS ARE MIXED UNTIL A UNIFORM PREPARATION IS ATTAINED ON SMALL SCALE AS IN EXTEMPORANEOUS COMPOUNDING THE COMPONENTS ARE MIXED USNG PESTLE AND MORTAR OR SPATULA MAY BE USED TO RUB INGREDIENTS ON AN OINTMENT SLAB MEDICAMENT IS MIXED WITH SMALL AMOUNT OF BASE AND REMAINDER IS MIXED GRADUALLY AND TRITURATED CONTINEOUSLY IF MATERIAL TO BE INCORPORATED IS SOLID THEN FIRST SOLID IS TRITURATED TO FINE POWDER AND THEN SHOULD BE INCORPORATED . . . . (INCORPORATION OF SOLID)

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IT IS OFTEN DESIRABLE TO REDUCE PARTICLE SIZE OF CRYSTALLINE MATERIAL SO THAT FINAL PRODUCT WILL NOT BE GRITTY THIS IS DONE BY LEVIGATING OR MIXING SUBSTANCE IN A VEHICLE IN WHICH IT IS INSOLUBLE SO THAT A SMOOTH DISPERSION IS FORMED LEVIGATING AGENT SHOULD BE IN EQUAL VOLUME TO SOLID MATERIAL . . . IF MATERIAL TO BE INCORPORATED IS SOLUBLE IN ONE OF INGREDIENTS OF BASE ,FIRST DISSOLVE IN THAT INGREDIENT AND THEN INCORPORATE . TWIN-ROLLER MILLS ARE AVAILABLE FOR PREPARATION OF SMALL QUANTITIES OF OINTMENTS BY HAND . IF INGREDIENTS OF OINTMENTS ARE REACTIVE WITH STAINLESS STEAL SPATULA(AS DOES IODINE FOR EXAMPLE)HARD RUBBER SPATULA MAY BE USED .

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INCORPORATION (INCORPORATION OF LIQUID) LIQUIDS ARE ADDED ONLY AFTER DUE CONSIDERATION OF AN OINTMENT BASE CAPACITY TO ACCEPT VOLUME REQUIRED ONLY SMALL AMOUNT OF AQUEOUS SOLUTION IS INCORPORATED INTO OLEAGINOUS OINTMENT HYDROPHILLIC OINTMENTS READILY ACCEPT LARGE VOLUMES WHEN IT IS NECESSARY TO ADD AQUEOUS PREPARATION TO HYDROPHOBIC BASE,SOLUTION FIRST MAY BE INCORPORATED INTO MINIMUM AMOUNT OF HYDROPHILLIC BASE AND THEN ADDED TO HYDROPHOBIC BASE ALL LIQUIDS HAVE THEIR LIMITS TO RETAIN LIQUIDS BEYOND WHICH THEY BECOME TOO SOFT OR SEMISOLID . . . . .

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FUSION MEDICATED OINTMENTS AND OINTMENT BASES CONTAINING COMPONENTS SUCH AS BEESWAX,PARAFFIN,STEARYL ALCOHOL AND HIGH M.W PEGs WHICH DO NOT LEND THEMSELVES WELL TO MIXURE BY INCORPORATION ARE PREPARED BY FUSION OINTMENTS CONTAINING INGREDIENTS WHICH ARE QUITE SOLID AT ROOM TEMPERATURE ARE PREPARED BY MELTING INGREDIENTS IN A PORCELAIN DISH OVER WATER BATH THE USUAL METHOD IS TO MELT SUBSTANCE WITH HIGHEST MELTING POINT FIRST,AND THEN ADD INGREDIENTS IN ORDER OF THEIR MELTING POINTS SRIRRING SHOULD BE CONTINEOUS UNTILL OINTMENT IS HOMOGENEOUS AND REACHES TO CONGEALING POINT . . . .

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AN INSOLUBLE SUBSTANCE IS INCORPORATED AFTER LEVIGATING WITH OIL ON LARGE SCALE FUSION IS CARRIED OUT IN STEAM JACKETED KETTLES . .

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MICROBIAL CONTENT

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TOPICAL APPLICATIONS ARE NOT REQUIRED TO BE STERILE,HOWEVER CONSIDERATION MUST BE GIVEN TO INFECTIOUS RESPONSE CAUSED BY CERTAIN MICROORGANISMS DERMATOLOGIC PRODUCTS SHOULD BE FREE OF: . . . . STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA BASES HAVING HIGH WATER CONTENT SUPPORT MICROBIAL GROWTH .

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PRESERVATION

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AMONG THE ANTIMICROBIAL PRESERVATIVES USED TO INHIBIT MICROBIAL GROWTH IN TOPICAL PREPARATIONS ARE: METHYLPARABEN PROPYLPARABEN PHENOLS BENZOIC ACID SORBIC ACID . . . . . .

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FILLING OF OINTMENT

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FILLING IS DONE BY TWO WAYS: HAND FILLING MECHANICAL FILLING . .

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HAND FILLING: WEIGHTED AMOUNT OF OINTMENT IS PLACED IN A JAR WITH THE HELP OF FLEXIBLE SPATULA OINTMENT IS FORCED DOWN TO BOTTOM AND ALONG WALLS OF JAR TO AVOID AIR ENTRAPMENT . .

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MECHANICAL FILLING: IN THIS METHOD OINTMENTS CAN BE FILLED IN TIN JARS AND POLYETHYLENE TUBES FILLING IS DONE BY PRESSURE FILLER WHICH CONSIST OF NOZEL AND PISTON FROM WHICH OINTMENT OOZES OUT ON APPLYING PRESSURE ON PISTON TUBES ARE FILLED FROM BACK SIDE AND THEN ARE SEALED . . .

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VACCUM FILLERS ARE ALSO AVAILABLE IN WHICH NOZEL IS ATTACHED TO VACCUM PUMP AN OINTMENT FILLER .

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PACKAGING OINTMENTS SHOULD BE PACKAGED SO THAT THERE ARE NO AIR SPACES IN JAR MUST BE STORED IN WELL CLOSED CONTAINER TO AVOID CONTAMINATION . .

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STORAGE STORE AT COOL PLACE TO AVOID SOFTENING AND LIQUIFICATION OF BASE .

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LABELLING IT SHOULD BE LABELLED AS: “FOR EXTERNAL USE ONLY” .

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CREAMS

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“VISCOUS LIQUID OR SEMISOLID EMULSIONS FOR APPLICATION ON SKIN AND MUCOUS MEMBRANE” CREAMS MAY BE: FOR SPECIFIC ACTION EMOLLIENT e.g FOR APPLICATION ON BURNS MEDICATED NON-MEDICATED . .

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TWO TYPES: WATER IN OIL OR OILY CREAMS: CONTAIN W/O EMULSIFIER e.g WOOL FATS AND WOOL ALCOHOL EXAMPLES: COLD CREAM ZINC CREAM OIL IN WATER OR AQUEOUS CREAMS: CONTAIN O/W EMULSIFIER e.g EMULSIFYING WAX ALKALI SALT OF A FATTY ACID EXAMPLES: VANISHING CREAM HYDROCORTISONE CREAM

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OIL IN WATER EMULSIONS CONTAIN LARGE PERCENTAGE OF WATER,STEARIC ACID AND OTHER OLEAGINOUS COMPONENTS AFTER APPLICATION WATER EVAPORATES AND LEAVES BEHIND A THIN RESIDUE FILM OF STEARIC ACID AND OLEAGINOUS COMPONENT SO IT IS PROTECTANT IN NATURE

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PREPARATION OF CREAMS

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CREAMS ARE PREPARED BY DISPERSING OR DISSOLVING MEDICINAL AGENTS IN EMULSION IN EXTEMPORANEOUS PREPARATION PESTLE AND MORTAR IS USED (A MECHANICAL BLENDER)TO PREPARE EMULSION EMULSIFYING AGENT IS MIXED WITH OIL AND THEN WATER IS ADDED AFTER FORMATION OF EMULSION MEDICINAL AGENTS OF CREAM ARE DISPERSED

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ADVANTAGES OVER OINTMENTS CREAMS ARE EASIER TO SPREAD THAN OINTMENTS AQUEOUS CREAMS ARE EASY TO WASH THAN ALL OINTMENTS

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PACKAGING SAME PACKAGING AS OINTMENTS: CREAMS SHOULD BE PACKAGED SO THAT THERE ARE NO AIR SPACES IN JAR MUST BE STORED IN WELL CLOSED CONTAINER TO AVOID CONTAMINATION

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PRESERVATION OF CREAMS

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AMONG THE ANTIMICROBIAL PRESERVATIVES USED TO INHIBIT MICROBIAL GROWTH IN TOPICAL PREPARATIONS ARE: METHYLPARABEN PROPYLPARABEN PHENOLS BENZOIC ACID SORBIC ACID . . . . . .

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SOURCES PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS AND DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS ANSEL’S NASIR HAYYAT SIPRA WW.GOOGLE.COM WWW.WIKIPEDIA.COM

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