TYPES OF DICTIONARIES

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TYPES OF DICTIONARIES:

TYPES OF DICTIONARIES Created by Zhalimova Margarita & Plonbikova Kate 312(2) group

Definition :

Definition A dictionary (also called a wordbook , lexicon or vocabulary ) is a collection of words in one or more specific languages, often listed alphabetically , with usage information, definitions , etymologies, phonetics, pronunciations, and other information ; or a book of words in one language with their equivalents in another, also known as a lexicon .

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Dictionaries can be divided into two main types: encyclopedic and linguistic. Synchronic linguistic dictionaries reflect the language of a certain slice of time (for example, the language of the XVIII century, the modern language). Diachronic ( eg , etymological) - reflect the development of language over time. Life (al-Greek. Ἐγκύκλιος παιδεία - «full circle learning") dictionaries contain information about extra-linguistic units are described, and these dictionaries contain information about scientific concepts, terms, historical events, personalities, geography, etc. The encyclopaedia no grammatical information about words, and provides information about a subject, denoted by the word.

Criteria for classification::

Criteria for classification: (1) Density of entries: whether the word list is general or restricted and special? Does it also cover regional and social dialects, jargons and slangs and archaisms? (2) The number of languages involved: monolingual, bilingual, multilingual etc. (3) The nature of entries: whether lexical only or also encyclopedic , the degree of concentration on strictly lexical data. (4) Axis of time: whether diachronic (dynamic) or synchronic (static). (5) Arrangement of entries: alphabetical or semantic or causal. (6) Purpose: whether normative or referential. (7) The prospective user

classification of dictionaries:

classification of dictionaries Encyclopedic and linguistic Dictionaries diachronic Historical and Etymological Dictionaries synchronic Special Dictionaries General Dictionaries Major English dictionaries Online dictionaries Dictionaries of other languages

Encyclopedic and linguistic Dictionaries the degree of the inclusion of lexical (i.e. linguistic) and non-lexical (i.e. encyclopedic) information in the dictionary:

Encyclopedic and linguistic Dictionaries the degree of the inclusion of lexical (i.e. linguistic) and non-lexical (i.e. encyclopedic) information in the dictionary Features of the encyclopedic information (a) the inclusion of names of persons, places, and literary works, (b) coverage of all branches of human knowledge, (c) extensive treatment of facts. The lexical or linguistic information pertains to linguistic characteristics of the lexical unit viz., pronunciation, definition, etymology, grammatical category, etc. The encyclopedic dictionary is a combination of an encyclopedia and a linguistic dictionary. It also includes items that are generally characteristic of an encyclopedia in addition to the items of a linguistic dictionary. In the amount of the information and the manner of its presentation, again, it combines the features of both. The linguistic dictionary deals with only the lexical stock .The linguistic dictionary usually attains the status of the encyclopedic dictionary in different ways: when a linguistic definition becomes inadequate to describe the lexical item, In the definition of certain words the encyclopedic definition determines the underlying concept different meanings of a polysemous word

diachronic or dynamic (the former dealing with words across time) and synchronic or static (the latter at a particular point of time):

diachronic or dynamic (the former dealing with words across time) and synchronic or static (the latter at a particular point of time) Bigger dictionaries of synchronic/descriptive character, have to include some amount of historical information. Larger dictionaries of many Indian language, meant for the understanding of the literature of the language, include some words from texts of the earlier period.

Historical and Etymological Dictionaries The main function of both the historical dictionary and the etymological dictionary is to present the history of a lexical item. The difference lies in their approach.:

Historical and Etymological Dictionaries The main function of both the historical dictionary and the etymological dictionary is to present the history of a lexical item. The difference lies in their approach. The historical dictionary records the development of a lexical item in terms of both the form and the meaning of the particular lexical unit. A historical dictionary can cover all the works available in a language and give all citations for all the lexical items. The etymological dictionary presents the origin of words by tracing the present day words to their oldest forms. He etymological dictionaries have been classified in several categories on the basis of the range of coverage, the number of languages covered etc. The dictionary of borrowed or foreign word in a language can be included in the class of etymological dictionary, because by giving the origin of these words the dictionary provides clue to the etymology of these words.

The synchronic dictionaries are generally grouped into two classes: general and special. :

The synchronic dictionaries are generally grouped into two classes: general and special . General dictionaries contain those words of the language which are of general use representing various spheres of life and presenting a complete picture of the general language. They are meant for the general user of the language. Special dictionaries either cover a specific part of the vocabulary or are prepared with some definite purpose.

The special dictionaries may be classed into the following groups on the basis of the nature of their word lists::

The special dictionaries may be classed into the following groups on the basis of the nature of their word lists: (1) Their covering special geographical regions, social dialects or special spheres of human activity, (2) Their formal shape, (3) Their semantic aspect and their relational value in the lexical stock of the language, (4) Their collocational value, (5) Special language units and others.

1. The first group includes the dictionaries of the following: :

1. The first group includes the dictionaries of the following: (a), dialects, (b) technical terms - glossaries (c) special professions, arts and crafts etc., (d) slangs, jargons and argot etc.

2. Special dictionaries classified on the basis of the formal aspects of the lexical units are of the following types: :

2. Special dictionaries classified on the basis of the formal aspects of the lexical units are of the following types: (a) Spelling or orthographical dictionaries, (b) Pronouncing dictionaries, (c) Word formation dictionaries (including dictionaries of roots, verbs etc.), (d) Dictionaries of homonyms, (e) Dictionaries of paronyms , (f) Grammatical dictionaries, (g) Reverse dictionaries (h) Dictionaries of abbreviations, acronyms etc.

3. The dictionaries classified on the basis of their semantic aspect and their relational value in the lexical stock of the language are the following::

3. The dictionaries classified on the basis of their semantic aspect and their relational value in the lexical stock of the language are the following: (a) Dictionary of synonyms, (b) Dictionary of antonyms, (c) Ideographical or ideological dictionary, (d) Dictionary of frequency counts.

4. Special dictionaries classified on the basis of their collocational value are the following::

4. Special dictionaries classified on the basis of their collocational value are the following: a. Dictionaries of collocations: these dictionaries give usual collocations of the lexical units. They give list of all the words that can be collocated with the head word. But such dictionaries are usually limited in their scope and present only words of a few grammatical categories viz. nouns, verbs and adjectives etc. They are useful for language teaching. b. Dictionaries of Usages: these dictionaries generally aim at providing guidelines for the correct and standard use of words and are normative in character.

5. Dictionaries of special lexical units are generally the following::

5. Dictionaries of special lexical units are generally the following: (a) Dictionaries of phrases or phraseological dictionaries: these dictionaries present the phraseological units of the language and are usually accompanied with illustrative examples. (b) Dictionaries of proverbs and idioms: they deal with proverbs and idioms of a language. (c) Dictionaries of neologism: such dictionaries present new words introduced in the language and the new meanings acquired by the existing words. They provide good material for the revision of the dictionaries. The addenda given in some dictionaries is very much nearer to this type of dictionaries. (d) Dictionaries of borrowed words: these dictionaries deal with words which are borrowed in the language from time to time. These dictionaries, in a limited sense, come under the class of etymological dictionaries. Other dictionaries of this class are dictionaries of surname, toponyms , dictionary of false friends, common vocabularies, etc.

Other types of Special Dictionaries: :

Other types of Special Dictionaries: Exegetic dictionaries: they deal with the text of some author or many authors and are prepared in different ways. Similar to exegetic dictionaries are what we call concordences wherein all the occurrences of a particular lexical unit are quoted systematically by giving the actual place of occurrence. Learner's Dictionaries: These dictionaries are broadly of two types: (1) dictionaries meant for the foreign learners , (2) Dictionaries meant for native learners . Generally, but not exclusively, the name is used for the first type of learners.

The chief characteristic features of the dictionaries marking them different from other dictionaries are the following::

The chief characteristic features of the dictionaries marking them different from other dictionaries are the following: (1) The vocabulary is very limited. The selection of vocabulary items is very carefully done on different scientific principles. (2) The emphasis is not on giving all the possible meanings of a lexical unit but its function and usage in the language.

General Dictionaries the general dictionary covers the total language. It contains words from all spheres of human activities and all areas of the life of the speakers of the language. :

General Dictionaries the general dictionary covers the total language. It contains words from all spheres of human activities and all areas of the life of the speakers of the language. The general dictionaries are of two types: (a) Academic or normative dictionary, (b) Referential or overall descriptive dictionary.

Major English dictionaries:

Major English dictionaries A Dictionary of the English Language by Samuel Johnson (prescriptive) The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language Black's Law Dictionary , a law dictionary Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable Canadian Oxford Dictionary Century Dictionary Chambers Dictionary Collins English Dictionary Concise Oxford English Dictionary Longman Macquarie Dictionary , a dictionary of Australian English Merriam-Webster New Oxford Dictionary of English Oxford Dictionary of English Oxford English Dictionary (descriptive) Random House Dictionary of the English Language Noah Webster 's An American Dictionary of the English Language (prescriptive) Webster's Dictionary (descriptive) Webster's New World Dictionary

Online dictionaries There exist a number of websites which operate as online dictionaries, usually with a specialized focus. Some of them have exclusively user driven content, often consisting of neologisms. Some of the more notable examples include:

Online dictionaries There exist a number of websites which operate as online dictionaries, usually with a specialized focus. Some of them have exclusively user driven content, often consisting of neologisms . Some of the more notable examples include Double-Tongued Dictionary (user generated content) Free On-line Dictionary of Computing LEO (website) Logos Dictionary Pictual (website) Pseudodictionary (exclusively user-defined neologisms, with humorous intent) Reference.com Urban Dictionary (much of the content ephemeral slang terminology, some with sources) Wiktionary (multilingual dictionary, a Wikipedia project) WWWJDIC (online Japanese dictionary)

Dictionaries of other languages:

Dictionaries of other languages Histories and descriptions of the dictionaries of other languages include Scottish Language Dictionaries , Japanese dictionary , Chinese dictionary , Scottish Gaelic dictionaries , German dictionaries and the list of French dictionaries .

References:

References http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dictionary http://www.ciil-ebooks.net/html/lexico/link5.htm http://www.a-z-dictionaries.com/articles/Types_Of_English_Language.html