Management of Pests and Diseases - By Dr.A.Balu, IFGTB.


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Integrated Pest Management involves, Preventive measures, Quarantine against pests, Surveillance, Mechanical control, Cultural control, Behavioral control, Botanical, Biological and Chemical Controls.


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Botanical, Biological and chemical control of Plant Pests and diseases

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This presentation is the property of Dr. A.Balu, Scientist, Forest Protection Division, IFGTB,Coimbatore, Tamilnadu.

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A.Vishnu Sankar Agriculturist Panaiyoor-627761 Sankarankovil- Tk Tirunelveli – Dt E-mail ID: [email protected] Blog: Presentation brought to you by:

Botanical control:

Botanical control Neem based products Use of Neem seed kernel extracts at 5% Use of commercial Neem formulations Tobacco leaves or stem and Neem soap mixture ( Tobacco leaves or stem - 3.5kg + Pure water – 7 litres = Boil it for 1hr and cool and mix it with 500gms of Neem soap. Filtre and mix it with 60 litres of water - Effective for defoliators and sap suckers ) Chilli tobacco mixture (Tobacco stem powder, Chilli powder and fine sieved sand mix them at the ratio of 4:3:5 and dust the crops. Effective for defoliators) Garlic mixture (Garlic with coat 100gms; Kerosene 50ml; Pure water 500ml; Neem soap 20gms keep them in mud pot for 30hrs, filtre and mix with water @ 1:25 ratio and spray over the crops for control of defoliators)

Garlic tobacco mixture :

Garlic tobacco mixture Solution A: Soak 1kg of garlic in 100 ml of Kerosene overnight and ground with 500 gms of green chillies, 500 gms of ginger and 200 gms of pepper the next day. Solution B : Soak 500gms of tobacco in 2 liters of water for a day and then filter and mix with 200ml of neem oil. Mix both the solutions and make up to 7 liters by adding pure water and finally add 30gms of Neem soap and stir well 700 ml of the solution can be diluted with 10 liters of water and sprayed over the crop

Ginger garlic extract:

Ginger garlic extract About 100gms of ginger and 100gms of garlic and 200gms of green chilli can be ground and mixed with 5 litres of cow’s urine. After 10 days the mixture can be filtered and used. 500ml of this solution can be diluted to 10 litres of water and sprayed over the plants. Effective in controlling leaf roller, thrips, mealy bugs, fruit , stem and bark borer, hairy caterpillar and aphids.

Five leaf extract:

Five leaf extract Sl. No. Name of the plant Quantity and preparation 1 Calotropis (Yerukku) Each 1 kg leaves of five plants of any of these shade dried and powdered and then ground into paste and mixed with 5 litres of cow’s urine. The concoction is then diluted in 5 litres of water and left undisturbed for 5 days. 500ml of this solution can be diluted with 10 litres of water and sprayed. 2 Jatropha (Kattu amanaku) 3 Neem ( Vembu ) 4 Guduchhi/Amruth (Seenthil kodi) 5 Vitex (Nochi) 6 Adathoda 7 Kalmegh (Siriyanangai) 8 Clerodendron (Peenarisanghu) 9 Usil ( Arappu )

Preparation of 5% Neem Seed kernel Extract:

Preparation of 5% Neem Seed kernel Extract Collect the fully ripe fruits from trees as well as from the ground underneath the trees De pulp the fruits by soaking the fruits in water for 3-5 days and trample the seeds for complete removal of pulp/flesh and wash them thoroughly Dry the depulped seeds in shade for 8-10 days to bring down the moisture content to the desired level Store the dried seeds in suitable containers Take required quantity of seeds, decorticate it manually and collect the kernels Grind 50gms of kernels to powder form by a grinder/ mixy Soak the powder in one liter water for about 8-10hours and stir the contents often Filter the contents through a muslin cloth Add 1ml of teepol/sandovit to the filtered solution and mix it thoroughly Spry the solution the crop in the evening hours

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Defoliators of teak and Acacia nilotica killed by Neem azal (commercial neem formulation) Dr.A,Balu, IFGTB

Commercial Neem formulation:

Commercial Neem formulation Achook Bisol Kemisal Margocide OK Margosal Neem plus Neem guard Neem pure Nimbecidine Phytowin TANU Neem Neem azal Ecomak Neemax Neemactin Neemicide

Biological control:

Biological control Bioagents Parasites (nematodes, parasitic wasps and flies) Predators (birds, reptiles and mammals and spiders and insects) Pathogens Viruses (NPV, Granulosus ) Bacteria ( Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t) Fungi and ( Baeuveria bassiana , Metarihzium anisopliae ) Protozoan

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Egg parasitoid, Trichogramma sp. Predator, Lady bird beetle, predator of sap sucking insects Dr.A,Balu, IFGTB

Commercial B.t.:

Commercial B.t. Delfin Biolep (BTK-I) Bioasp (BTKII) Biobit Halt Lupin Spectrin Agree Dr.A,Balu, IFGTB

Chemical control:

Chemical control Organophosphates Chlorinated Hydrocarbons Carbamates Pyrethroids

Chemicals recommended:

Chemicals recommended Name of the chemicals Commercial Name Used for control of Dicofol, WettableSulphur Kelthane, Barmite, Micothane mites Chlorpyriphos Agrofos, Dursban, Durmet Termites, grasshopper and soil insect Endosulfan Endosol, Endocel, Thiodon Sucking pests, caterpillars Dichlorvos Nuvan, vapona Caterpillars and sucking pests Phosphomidon Methyldemton Leaf gall, Sucking pests, leaf miners and mites Monocrotophos Nuvacron Thrips, whiteflies, leaf miners, leaf webers, beetles and caterpillars Quinalphos Ekalux Sucking and caterpillars Dimethoate Rogor, Dimex, Dimer Wide variety of sucking pests Carbaryl Sevin Wide variety of insects Carbofuran Furadan Nematodes, soil insects like termites, grubs Cypermethrin Bullet Leaf eating caterpillars Fenvalerate Fenval, Fencid Leaf eating caterpillars and stable in sunlight Malathion Fruit flies Acephate Tremor, Acemil, Sucking pest and caterpillars

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Sl.No. Pesticides Used against 1. Fipronil For plant hopper & borer control, carbamates & organophosphate granules used @ 1000 g a.i/ha 2 Imidacloprid Low dose against sucking pests as against conventionals used @ 300-500 g a.i./ha 3. Thiamethoxam 4 Clothianidin Some low application rate products launched during last 10 years for use in pest management

Precautionary measures:

Precautionary measures Diagnose the problems correctly and select right pesticides Use right concentration with appropriate applicators Add wetting agent always Assess the point and stage of application

Preparation of chemicals at desired concentration:

Preparation of chemicals at desired concentration Desired strength or Concentration ___________________________ = Required quantity for 1 liter solution EC of the chemical Eg. Monocrotohos 0.05 ________ = 1.38ml/1litre of water 36 EC

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Protection from fungal attack (Application of chemicals)

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FUNGICIDES/BACTERICIDES Technical Name Commercial Wettable Used against Name Powder Methyl Carbomyl Benzimidazole (Carbendazim) Bavistin 50% Leaf spot (Foliar spray) and Root rot (Soil drenching) Zinc ethylene dithiocarbomate Dithane M-45 75% Leaf blight, Tip drying Tridemorph Calixin 75% Powdery mildew

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FUNGICIDES/BACTERICIDES Technical Name Commercial Wettable Usedagainst Name Powder Dihydro methyl – Oxathin Carboxinilide-dioxide Plantavax 75% Leaf rust (Foliar spray) Methoxy ethyl mercury chloride Emisan -6 6 w/w Damping off, Root rot, Collar rot -- Ceresan - Seed treatment

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Control of Leaf spot and blight by using Fungicide TREATED CONTROL

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Procedure: DV W = -------- x 1000 A W = Amount of fungicide to be weighed D = Dosage recommended V = Volume of fungicide solution to be prepared A = Concentration of active ingredient of the fungicide.

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PREPARATION OF BAVISTIN FUNGICIDE SOLUTION Example: 0.1 x 10 Weight = ------------------- x 1000 50 Weight of the fungicide = 20 gm in 10 litres of water

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