His 102 The Two Great Wars Recording (TMC 2012-13)

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Presentation Description

A brief overview of the Two World Wars, including some mentions of the staggering body count, the terrible destruction, and the socio-economic changes which accompany the wars. For Thomas More college.

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Presentation Transcript

The Two Great Wars:

The Two Great Wars World War I and World War Two

Balance:

Balance 19 th century peace “Balance of Powers” France, Great Britain, Austria-Hungary, Russia Each country a counter-weight to the others What about Italy, Germany? New countries emerge 1852, 1871 (respectively) Hungry to be taken seriously, participate in European politics as an equal What happens to the “Balance”?

Europe on the Brink:

Europe on the Brink

Heart of the Matter:

Heart of the Matter Colonization not confined to Africa, Asia Austria Hungary, Russia competed for influence, territory in The Balkans Austria-Hungary acquires Bosnia, Herzegovinia 1908 Serbia worried that they are next Secret pact with Russia for help Austria-Hungarian Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated in Sarejevo , 1914 A-H blames Serbia, threatens to invade Pact with Russia invoked

Beginning of War:

Beginning of War Europeans supremely confident of quick victory Tout mechanized warfare Glory of battle Volunteers eager to sign up for “quick, glorious war” EX: England (almost 1 million volunteers Aug - Oct, 1914) “Lions” led by “Donkeys” Eager soldiers led by inept, ignorant generals?

Reality of War:

Reality of War Quick German momentum bogs down in Western, Eastern Europe Beginning of trench warfare (stalemate) Disease, ‘shell shock’ Advent of chemical warfare horrifies world A quick end? Cities become battlefields Civilian casualties mount Starvation, shortages

Casualties of the ‘Great War’:

Casualties of the ‘Great War’ 37 million casualties 9.5 million soldiers dead 6.5 million civilians dead Economies ruined Infrastructure destroyed Treasuries emptied

Women & The War to end all Wars:

Women & The War to end all Wars Women volunteer Non-combat roles Nurses, ambulance, etc. Support roles Communication, Liaison, mechanics, etc. Women in the economy Munitions, weapons plants “yellow girls” Bread winners Postal service, bus drivers, bank tellers, elevator operators

End of the War:

End of the War American entry forces Germany to surrender American president Woodrow Wilson cautions France, England not to take revenge Largely ignored France, England force Germany to sign harsh agreements Prevent Germany from becoming military power again Crush German economy Repayment plan would last until 1988

East Asia:

East Asia Japan member of Entente Secured Pacific for Entente Put down rebellions on behalf of England Secured German holdings in Asia (esp. China) Treated as junior member during Treaty negotiations Western powers suspicious of Japanese intent China technically member of Entente Chinese labor in Western Front unrecognized Chinese hoped to be ‘freed’ from Unequal Treaties by Wilson’s 14 Points US, Europe reaffirm Japanese dominion over Manchuria

Stock Market Crash 1929:

Stock Market Crash 1929 Speculators hyper-inflate prices of stock Bought stock on 'margin' (credit) Invested with other people's money The bubble bursts 20 OCT 1929

Weimar Republic in Germany:

Weimar Republic in Germany New, representative republic chosen for Germany High international debts prevent economy from flourishing Worse during Great Depression 8000% inflation at worst Dissatisfied, frustrated Germans turn to radical, reactionary politics Hitler’s “ Brownshirts ” and “National Socialist Party” Hitler becomes Chancellor 1933

Hitler’s Germany:

Hitler’s Germany Abrogates Treaty of Versailles Begins building up military Looks for ‘scapegoats’ in German society Jews, Bolsheviks ruining country Anti-Jewish pogroms displace, murder Jews, dissidents Expanding “ Lebenstraum ” for German people Annex Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland Land wasted on “inferior” peoples

World Reaction:

World Reaction Great Britain: “Appeasement” PM Neville Chamberlain “Peace in our time” France: alliance with Poland Arming defensive “Maginot line” United States Some politicians, pundits support German recovery Anti-Communist character Majority largely indifferent, isolationist Soviet Union Makes deal to split Poland with Germany, remain out of war

Plunge into War:

Plunge into War German invasion of Poland 1939 ‘Blitzkrieg’ and air superiority overwhelm less-industrialized Poland France declares war on Germany Enlists Great Britain’s help German invasion of France, 1940 The Netherlands, Belgium, France conquered by June 1940 British abandon supplies, war materiel to save troops Pearl Harbor, December 1941 Japanese (German ally) attacks American fleet Germany declares war, US enters into war

Women & WWII:

Women & WWII Women again take roles in typically ‘masculine’ jobs Esp. manufacturing Rosie the Riveter Women’s economic freedom may have lead to the next generation’s push for gender equality (Women’s Movement) Sole ‘bread winner,’ de facto single mothers Women in ‘auxiliary’ military roles WACS, WAVES Fill in positions for men Military rank

Destruction Complete:

Destruction Complete 60+ million deaths caused by World War Two ~20,000,000 soldiers ~40,000,000 civilians Disease Starvation Massacres Bombings ‘final solution’ and other genocides In perspective 1 in 4 Russians were killed during the war Black plague of 14 th century killed fewer Russians

The Final Solution:

The Final Solution Jews, ‘undesirables’ detained in Ghettoes, concentration camps Systematic program of mass murder Dead treated like refuse, raw material Starvation, poison gas, shootings, etc. become norm

The Final Tally:

The Final Tally 11+ Million dead ~6 million Jews ~3 million Polish Catholics African-Germans Handicapped Mentally Ill/Developmentally Challenged Homosexuals Gypsies Slavs Resistance fighters (Holland, France, Belgium, Germany, Hungary, Greece, etc.)

End of WWII in Asia:

End of WWII in Asia Hiroshima (Little Boy) August 6, 1945 Nagasaki (Fat Man) August 9, 1945

I Have Become Death…:

I Have Become Death… 75,000+ dead, 74,000+ injured in Nagasaki alone Bombs force Japanese to sign conditional surrender Emperor not forced to resign Allied forces (except Russia) occupy Japan Pacifist Constitution Horror of the devastation haunts Robert Oppenheimer “I have become death, destroyer of worlds…” Campaigns for Atomic Disarmament Frozen out of US research, development

After WWII:

After WWII US Leadership in world important Rivalry with Soviet Union Political, economic, strategic differences Prevent conditions which led to WWII Rebuild Europe, World Even Germany, Japan Marshall Plan spends $13 Billion to rebuild Europe (keep West working to prevent Communism) Establish United Nations Punish ‘war criminals’ for genocide, devastation

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