His 102 Industrial Revolution Recording (Week 5)

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Presentation Description

A quick, down & dirty recount of what the Industrial Revolution is and its affects on Europe, China and Japan. For Thomas More College.

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Presentation Transcript

Industrial Revolution:

Industrial Revolution Ushering in the Contemporary World

Watt Steam Engine:

Watt Steam Engine Mechanical power supplants muscle power Steam engine used to pump water out of mines ~1750 Reliable Powerful Never tires

Forward Little Britain:

Forward Little Britain Great Britain’s political, economic, mineral climate conducive to Industrial Revolution Entrepreneurs Risk-taking, economic freedom Coal, Iron Large deposits relatively close by Railroads! Transport raw materials, goods, people Fast growth 1 st railroads as early as 1804 1 st steamboats as early as 1787

Production:

Production Mining Made more efficient Dig deeper Move more material to refineries Transportation Made faster ‘shrinks’ the world Production Textiles Faster, cheaper, consistent Iron Stronger, cheaper

Britain & The World:

Britain & The World Britain leads Industrial Revolution through 19 th century Germany disunited until 1840’s Begins ‘catch-up’ to match Great Britain United States Progress disrupted by Civil War, would surpass Great Britain by 1900 France Lacking economic models, series of unrests disrupts French production Middle East Ottoman Empire late to the game, reliant upon European countries by 19 th century China Not interested in innovation (Products not impressive enough), purchases few items (arms, clocks, etc.) from Europe; remains ‘closed’ until mid-19 th century

Critical Mass:

Critical Mass Technologies, ideas do not gain world-wide popularity until 3 conditions met Technology Political will Profitability By 19 th century, Industrial revolution reaches ‘critical mass’ (enough people/countries desire change to make it happen)

“Upside” of Industrialization:

“Upside” of Industrialization World connected by fast travel, communication Suez Canal (1869), Panama Canal (1914) shorten travel time Railroads turn weeks, months into hours, days Middle Class expansion Entrepreneurs Professionals Higher education, standard of living Wider spread of wealth

The Canals:

The Canals

More “Upsides”:

More “Upsides” New industries increase wealth, employment opportunities Railroad workers, operators Telegraph operator Photographer/correspondent New travel opportunities allow settling of far-flung areas of world South Africa American ‘West’ Russia Siberia, Steppes

“Downside” to Industrialization:

“Downside” to Industrialization Disrupts traditional life for majority of poor Migrate from countryside to cities Dependent upon wages (no self-sustaining agriculture) No compensation for injuries, illness Long work hours (18+/day) Industrialization development uneven Some regions, cities lag Not competitive Colonies kept dependent Cotton from India > Textile mills in Britain > finished product in India

More “Downsides”:

More “Downsides” Child labor Cheap, easy to replace Families in need of money Lack of basic education Injury? Industrial Food Safety? Health? Upton Sinclair’s “The Jungle” (1906) Industrial warfare Machine guns Large armies Pressure to acquire more resources, markets

Food Industry:

Food Industry

Cracking the Door:

Cracking the Door European manufacturers find difficulty in opening Chinese markets Products not enticing enough Chinese xenophobia, condesention Chinese products highly prized, high price Interest in all things “oriental” reaches fever pitch in 19 th century Europeans need a product to ‘crack the door’ of the Chinese market A product that will ensure loyal customers

Opium & China:

Opium & China English dominance of India allows cultivation of poppies (opium) on large scale in early 18 th century Chinese gov’t responds by issuing series of laws against opium importation, sale Opium/tobacco mix proved profitable and drained Chinese economy 1838 gov’t action forced foreign merchants to surrender their opium for destruction Kicked off 1 st Opium War v. England

Industrialism & Drug Trade:

Industrialism & Drug Trade Chinese gov’t wages 2 wars v. English gov’t over sale, importation of opium 1 st Opium War 1839 – 1842 Chinese military larger, less modern Defeat leads to Treaty of Nanking Allowing trade in opium Hong Kong permanently ceded to England Other trade, diplomatic concessions 2 nd Opium War 1856 – 1860 Chinese gov’t even less able to defeat English-French alliance 7 more ports opened to foreign trade 5 million ounces of silver paid to Europeans Foreigners begin to carve up China into ‘spheres of influence’

Reaction to Opium Wars:

Reaction to Opium Wars Liberals dissented in motivations for war “A war more unjust in its origin, a war more calculated to cover this country with permanent disgrace, I do not know.” Wm. Gladstone, House of Commons Conservatives supported war not because of opium, but for revenge “The cause of the war is the arrogant and unsupportable pretensions of China…” John Q. Adams, fmr . US President

Yet at Home…:

Yet at Home… Temperance movement in England, Canada, United States gains momentum ‘demon rum’ (alcohol in all forms) seen as tearing at ‘moral fiber’ of working class Working class likely to fall into depravity, sin with alcohol Working class more reliable if no intoxicating substances present Temperance Unions

Carrie Nation:

Carrie Nation Temperance Unions become more active in their advocacy for ‘dry’ living Public protests, sit-ins, vandalism “I am a bull dog running at the feet of Jesus, barking at what he doesn’t like.” Carrie Nation, US WCTU

Opening of Japan:

Opening of Japan Japan had remained closed to all Westerners except Dutch from the 16 th century to the 19 th century Dutch traders allowed to conduct business on an artificial island, upon pain of death Dutch trading conducted by USA during Napoleonic wars Sailors from non-Dutch sanctioned trades subject to crucifixion for ‘piracy’ 1853 US Commodore Perry appears in Edo harbor with cutting-edge American warships Throws Japanese status quo out the window

Opening at Gunpoint:

Opening at Gunpoint Perry’s Navy outclassed Japanese ability to respond 300+ year technology gap Directly, indirectly caused a crisis of succession in Japanese gov’t “ Bakumatsu ” the “end of the curtain” or era Feudal Japanese society on last legs War between reforming Meiji Emperor and remnants of Tokugawa Shogunate ( Boshin War, etc.)

Meiji Era Japan:

Meiji Era Japan 1860’s – 1900’s aggressive, gov’t directed modernization of all aspects of Japanese society Military Economic Social Educational Dress, hair styles Still reverent of, holding remnants of the past

China & Japan:

China & Japan China European intervention prevented ‘modernization’ to a degree Europeans dominated Chinese gov’t, society until 20 th century ‘Spheres of Influence’ Japan Initial European intervention sparked ‘modernization’ Becoming more European than the Europeans Began establishing own ‘sphere of influence’ in China (occupation of Manchuria, war v. Russia, etc.)

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