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Chapter 12: 

Chapter 12 Consumer Behavior, Eighth Edition SCHIFFMAN & KANUK The Influence of Culture on Consumer Behavior


Culture The sum total of learned beliefs, values, and customs that serve to regulate the consumer behavior of members of a particular society.


Culture Culture offers order, direction, and guidance in all phases of human problem solving: When to eat, Where to eat, What to eat for each meal, What to serve guests at a dinner party, picnic, or wedding.

Forms of Cultural Learning: 

Forms of Cultural Learning Formal Learning Informal Learning Technical Learning


Figure 12.1 The Movement of Cultural Meaning

Issues in Culture: 

Issues in Culture Enculturation and acculturation Language and symbols Ritual Sharing of Culture

Figure 12.2 Ad Using Visual Imagery as a Symbol: 

Figure 12.2 Ad Using Visual Imagery as a Symbol

Figure 12.3 Weeknights are Rich with Ritual: 

Figure 12.3 Weeknights are Rich with Ritual


Table 12.1 Selected Rituals and Associated Artifacts


Table 12.2 Nightly Facial Beauty Ritual of a Young Internet Sales Representative 1. I pull my hair back with a headband. 2. I wash my face with tepid water using Dove facial cleanser to remove all makeup. 3. Next, I use a Q-tip with some moisturizer around my eyes to make sure all eye makeup is removed. 4. I apply Dermacil facial cream to my face to heavily moisturize and Clinique Dramatically Different Lotion on my neck and throat. 5. If I have a blemish, I apply Clearasil Treatment to the area to dry it out. 6. Twice weekly (or as necessary) I use Aapri Facial Scrub to remove dry and dead skin. 7. Once a week I apply Clinique Clarifying Lotion 2 with a cotton ball to my face and throat to remove deep down dirt and oils. 8. Once a month I get a professional salon facial to deep clean my pores.

Culture and Advertising: 

Culture and Advertising Is it the role of advertising to socialize readers on how to dress, decorate their homes, choose wines and food for parties, etc? Vanity Fair Martha Stewart Living Wine Spectator

The Measurement of Culture: 

The Measurement of Culture Content Analysis Consumer Fieldwork Value Measurement Instruments


Content Analysis A method for systematically analyzing the content of verbal and/or pictorial communication. The method is frequently used to determine prevailing social values of a society.


Field Observation A cultural measurement technique that takes place within a natural environment that focuses on observing behavior (sometimes without the subjects’ awareness).

Characteristics of Field Observation: 

Characteristics of Field Observation Takes place within a natural environment Performed sometimes without the subject’s awareness Focuses on observation of behavior


Participant-Observers Researchers who participate in the environment that they are studying without notifying those who are being observed.

Value Measurement Survey Instruments: 

Value Measurement Survey Instruments Rokeach Value Survey (RVS): A self-administered inventory consisting of eighteen “terminal” values (i.e., personal goals) and eighteen “instrumental” values (i.e., ways of reaching personal goals). List of Values (LOV): A value measurement instrument that asks consumers to identify their two most important values from a nine-value list that is based on the terminal values of the Rokeach Value Survey Values and Lifestyles (VALS): A value measurement based on two categories: self-definition and resources


Table 12.4 The Rokeach Value Survey


Table 12.4 continued

American Core Values: 

American Core Values Achievement and success Activity Efficiency and practicality Progress Material comfort Individualism Freedom External conformity Humanitarianism Youthfulness Fitness and health

Criteria for Value Selection: 

Criteria for Value Selection The value must be pervasive. The value must be enduring. The value must be consumer-related.

Figure 12.4 An Achievement-Success Appeal: 

Figure 12.4 An Achievement-Success Appeal

Figure 12.5 Ad Stressing Saving Time and Money: 

Figure 12.5 Ad Stressing Saving Time and Money

Figure 12.6 Progress is a Winning Appeal: 

Figure 12.6 Progress is a Winning Appeal

Figure 12.7 Ad Featuring the Freedom of Choice: 

Figure 12.7 Ad Featuring the Freedom of Choice

Figure 12.8 Fighting the Signs of Aging: 

Figure 12.8 Fighting the Signs of Aging

Figure 12.9 “You Are What You Eat”: 

Figure 12.9 “You Are What You Eat”

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