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Subject-Verb Mismatchesand Sentence Fragments : 

Subject-Verb Mismatchesand Sentence Fragments Avoiding major grammar errors

What is subject-verb agreement? : 

What is subject-verb agreement? Matching subjects to verbs means that Singular subjects use singular verbs. Mona writes great paragraphs. Plural subjects use plural verbs. Students write_ great paragraphs. Is bad spelling worse than subject-verb mix ups?

Why agree subject and verb? : 

Why agree subject and verb? Well educated writers match subject to verb with little effort, at least most of the time. The undereducated, however, don’t match subjects and verbs. Unmatched subjects and verbs make writing look poor! Or is it rather that “unmatched subjects and verbs makes writing looks poor?” How differently do the poor live from the rich?

When do subject-verb errors occur? : 

When do subject-verb errors occur? Writers fail to match subjects to verbs when: Subjects are separated from the verb. Made with the word “or.” Indefinite pronouns. Collective, group nouns. 5. With here, there, or it. 6. Singular but end in –s. 7. In money or measures. 8. Plural-looking titles. Do the guy’s clothes match the girls’?

1. Match distant subjects to verbs. : 

1. Match distant subjects to verbs. Ignore words between the subject and verb. A good set of skis costs /cost hundreds of dollars. A good set of skis costs hundreds of dollars My boss, as well as her staff, leave/leaves early everyday. My boss, as well as her staff, leaves early everyday. Can grammar check catch all subject-verb errors?

2. Match subjects with and : 

2. Match subjects with and Most compound subjects with and are plural: 1. Bert and Ernie is / are special friends. 2. Bread and butter is/ are pretty basic. But if words joined by “and” refer to a single thing, it’s singular: 3. War and Peace is/ are a very thick book. 4. My friend and co-worker is/ are waiting to see you. Who gets all the hard work?

2. Match subjects with “or” : 

2. Match subjects with “or” When the subject uses or/nor, the verb agrees with the closest word to the verb: 1. Neither the instructor nor the students has / have control of the number of 8 o’clock classes. 2. Either two credit cards or a membership is / are needed before you can rent movies. Does spelling count in resumes?

3. Match indefinite pronouns : 

3. Match indefinite pronouns Indefinite pronouns include every, everyone, each, neither, either, none, one, no one. Everyone has/have a/their student number. None of us admit/admits to sending the e-mail. Ignore prepositional phrases between the subject and the verb: Each school in the United States is/are hiring new teachers. Is the teacher’s grammar quite problematic?

4. Match collective nouns : 

4. Match collective nouns Words like jury, committee, herd are singular when everyone in is acting together: The jury is/are deciding the man’s future. Collective nouns are plural when the members of the group are not acting together: The jury is/are undecided on the guilt of the accused. Should this jury be hung?

5. Match here, there, and it. : 

5. Match here, there, and it. When the sentence begins with Here or There, the subject follows the verb and controls whether the verb is plural: Here are my reasons for quitting (plural) There is no need to pay me next week (singular) It is always singular It was the long hours that bothered me (singular) Is the dough considering quitting?

6. Match words ending in –s. : 

6. Match words ending in –s. Words such as economics, physics, and news are singular: 1. Economics is/are fun and exciting. 2. The news is/are usually broadcast live. Words such as scissors and pants that name things with two parts are plural: 3. My glasses was/were broken when I fell. 4. The scissors is/are dull. Should the secretary consider quitting?

7. Match money and measurements. : 

7. Match money and measurements. Units of time, money, distance, and weight use singular verbs: Twenty miles is/are a long way to drive to work. Eight dollars an hour is/are a high rate of pay. The expression the number is singular: The number of failures is/are decreasing. The expression a number is plural: A number of people are/are leaving. Does the secretary have a case?

8. Match titles to verbs. : 

8. Match titles to verbs. The title of a movie, book or magazine requires a singular verb, even when it looks plural: 1. Lost Horizons is/are a book about a utopia. 2. The Simpsons is/are not the best TV show. Does the “student” deserve his title?

Can you match subjects to verbs? : 

Can you match subjects to verbs? Select verbs in their correct forms: The cracked windshield, in addition to the rusted body, has/have made the old Honda Civic difficult to sell. At McDonald's work/works friends who will stuff in extra Chicken McNuggets. Two cups of chocolate milk make/makes Henri feel pretty good. The pair of jeans hug/hugs the curves of your body like paper on a Tootsie Pop. Neither of those students has/have a clue about subject-verb agreement.

Can you match subjects to verbs? : 

Can you match subjects to verbs? Select verbs in their correct forms: Although Juan has seen it ten times, Star Wars keep/keeps his interest. After considering evidence, the jury disagree/disagrees about the case. Physics give/gives Philip many headaches because he has to solve long word problems. Neither of the surfers see/sees the sharks that want to get them. Jim, together with his dog Pooh, walk/walks on the golf course everyday. Either history or statistics make/makes Julia’s head hurt the most.

Can you match subjects to verbs? : 

Can you match subjects to verbs? Select verbs in their correct forms: There is/are too many subject-verb errors in this essay for it to pass. That pair of pants has/have a big rip in the back that shows your shorts. One thousand pounds of jelly beans fill/fills the bottom of the red van. From the cafeteria come/comes the sweetest tomatoes that you will ever taste. The scissors is/are so dull that I'm not sure you could slice butter with them! All of the dryers take/takes six quarters before spinning wet clothes dry.

What are sentence fragments? : 

What are sentence fragments? Fragments are incomplete thoughts. There are four types of fragments: 1. Dependent-word fragments 2. Ing/to phrase fragments 3. Added-detail fragments 4. Missing-subject fragments Can Oog go beyond fragments?

What are dependent clause fragments? : 

What are dependent clause fragments? Never punctuate a dependent clause as a full sentence: She doesn’t like her sister. Because she wears her clothes. Marco didn’t care about school. Until his dad died. Adri would have eaten another burrito. Except her stomach felt full. What’s Oog’s problem now?

2. What are –ing/to phrase fragments? : 

2. What are –ing/to phrase fragments? Fragments often begin with –ing and to + verb phrases: To finish college. A student needs dedication. Knowing that it was time. Karla starting taking the VISTA quiz. Any person has to work hard. To finish any serious task. Is this how it all began?

3.What are added-detail fragments? : 

Some fragments add a detail to a prior thought: A good nurse should have some good qualities. Such as being caring, careful and competent. No one understands how Alfredo fears the COMPASS test. Not even his instructor. Marta watched the cartoons all evening. Entertaining to her amusement. 3.What are added-detail fragments? How much do we learn?

What are missing-subject fragments? : 

What are missing-subject fragments? Fragments may occur when there’s no subject or verb: Americans are wasteful because throw away food, clothes, and even cars. Is difficult for night people to attend early morning classes. While Marcelo got dressed, heard a crashing sound in the kitchen. How much do we learn?

Can you match fragment types? : 

Can you match fragment types? Identify fragment types Dependent-word, ing/to, added-detail, no subj/v: Having enjoyed break. Feel very energized. I ready to do my work. Such as finishing my essays. When the work is due. Will turn in my work. Getting a good grade. Does this explain it?

Here are the fragment types: : 

Here are the fragment types: Having enjoyed spring break. Feel very energized. I ready to do my school work. Such as finishing my essays and researching for my history class. When the assignments are due. Will turn in all my work on time. Getting a good grade. ING phrase Missing subject Missing verb Added detail Dependent marker Missing subject Missing verb

Slide 24: 

How do we correct fragments? I. Use a comma to connect the fragment to the independent clause: Example 1: Because there was a mosquito in the room. I could not fall asleep. Because there was a mosquito in the room, I could not fall asleep. Rule: When you start a sentence with because, put a comma—not a period—in the middle.

Slide 25: 

Fragment example 2 Sitting quietly on the couch.The dog didn’t look as if he’d eaten my sandwich. Sitting quietly on the couch, the dog didn’t look as if he’d eaten my sandwich. Rule: Connect ING phrases to the main clause with a comma—never a period!

Fragment example 3 : 

Fragment example 3 Almost everyone loves ice cream. Especially vanilla. Almost everyone loves ice cream, especially chocolate and vanilla. Rule: Connect added-thought phrases to the main clause with a comma—never a period!

How to correct fragments: : 

How to correct fragments: Always connect fragments to the main sentence by eliminating the overused period mark: A mouse’s face popped out of a hole near the sink. Then disappeared quickly. A mouse’s face popped out of a hole near the sink. Then it disappeared quickly. Should they stay closed?

Can you identify fragments? : 

Can you identify fragments? 1. Martha Stewart not dining with us this Thanksgiving. 2. I'm telling you in advance. 3. Don't act surprised. 4. Since Ms. Stewart won't be coming. 5. We have made a just a very few small changes. 6. Our sidewalk will not be lined with stars. 7. After a trial run. 8. Rows of lunch sacks do not have the desired effect. 9. Our guests noting that the entry is not decorated with the swags of Indian corn . 10. The kids having fun in colorful autumn leaves from the front yard.

Can you identify fragments? : 

Can you identify fragments? 11. The mud was their bad idea. 12. The dining table not covered with expensive linens, fancy china, or crystal goblets. 13. However, since this is Easter. 14. We no using the plastic Peter Rabbit plate and the Santa napkins. 15. Was necessary to escape from the boring lecture. 16. Except for my favorite grandmother. 17. Along with everyone else, knew that the car would not run properly. 18. Joni in the shopping mall looking at all of the passers by. 19. She almost forgot to go to work on time. 20. Arriving late at the office, asked her boss to forgive her.

Can you identify fragments? : 

Can you identify fragments? 21. Although most of the class understood the question. 22. Mona didn’t even know it was a question. 23. Looking blankly at the instructor. 24. She didn’t answer at anything all. 25. The professor thought she was dumb, but hoped that she would wake up. 26. Without even looking up at the instructor. 27. Mona called a friend on her cell phone. 28. The professor very angry with Mona. 29. Saying, “What is your problem, girl?” 30. Then Mona, running from the class in an emotional fit, looking back at her laughing friends.