Hot Air Balloon by Bailey and Roxy

Views:
 
Category: Entertainment
     
 

Presentation Description

P4

Comments

Presentation Transcript

Invention of the Hot Air Balloon:

Inve ntion of the Hot Air Ball oon

PowerPoint Presentation:

Joseph-Michel Montgolfier Born: August 26, 1740 Died: June 26, 1810 Jacques Etienne Montgolfier Born: January 6, 1745 Died: August 2, 1799

PowerPoint Presentation:

Both Montgolfier brothers were born at Annonay, Joseph in 1740, Étienne on Jan. 7, 1745. Their father owned a large paper mill and gave them a good education. Joseph was placed in a private school, but he left to start a chemical business by himself. Paris, with its famous scientists, attracted him, but after a short stay he was called back to Annonay to help his father run the paper mill. He promptly tried to introduce new techniques into the business, which resulted in his father's giving him funds to establish a business of his own. However, Joseph's inexperience soon led to considerable financial losses. Early Life and Education

PowerPoint Presentation:

Étienne's youth was a more conservative one. He received training as an architect, which included some scientific education. When he was 30, his father retired and placed him at the head of the business. Étienne soon earned a name in the paper industry through his careful and profitable improvements in papermaking. Whatever brought the attention of the brothers to using hot air for a balloon, and whether they even, at first, understood why smoke rose, is not clearly known. But it is known that they rapidly passed from a toy-sized balloon to a large one, and they soon learned that the best fuel was straw mixed with carded wool. The first public experiment, on June 5, 1783, demonstrated to an assembly of the local nobility of Annonay how a balloon some 35 feet in diameter could rise in 10 minutes to a height of well over a mile. News of the experiment spread rapidly. The central scientific institution in France, the Academy of Sciences, invited the Montgolfier brothers to Paris to repeat their experiment. Bad weather destroyed the first balloon, but a second attempt was made, at Versailles on Sept. 19, 1783, in the presence of the King and his court. The balloon, as was proper for the royal occasion, was elegantly decorated. This time it carried a sheep, a rooster, and a duck. It rose to over 1,000 feet and then floated down.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The successful exhibition before royalty made the Montgolfier brothers national figures. A gold medal was struck in their honor. Étienne received the ribbon of St. Michael; Joseph obtained a pension of 1,000 livres; and their father obtained a patent of nobility. Balloons caught the attention of the public, and the term montgolfière was even applied to hair fashions and dresses. In January 1784 at Lyons, to test whether balloons could carry passengers, Joseph made a mammoth 130-foot-diameter balloon, probably the largest hot-air balloon ever made. After freezing rain and a fire made Joseph's first effort unsuccessful, a second attempt was made on January 19. After a 15-minute flight with Joseph and two other passengers, the balloon made a rather rapid descent but landed without injury. The successful aeronauts were carried in triumph into Lyons. But the Montgolfier brothers soon saw themselves superseded by the exploits of others: long-distance flights, even Channel flights, were soon being attempted. Their real hope, that of creating aerial navigation, was dashed when they found they could not devise any means of controlling the flight of the balloons.

PowerPoint Presentation:

MOST IMPORTANT WORK AND INVENTION On the 19th of September, 1783, the Montgolfier brothers successfully launched a balloon made from paper and cloth. To inflate the balloon they burned a combination of straw, chopped wool and dried horse manure underneath the balloon. As the straw burned it released heat that helped the balloon float. The wool and manure made lots of smoke and helped keep the burning flame low, which lessened the risk of the balloon catching fire. The brothers were far too nervous to try out their invention themselves so they sent up a sheep, a duck and a rooster to see what happened. The paper balloon floated up into the sky and landed safely after eight minutes.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Questions and Answers about Hot Air Balloons What are hot air balloons made of? The first hot air balloons were made of fabric coated with alum to prevent it from catching fire. The burner was little more than an open pit, which caused more than a few early balloons to go down in flames as sparks ignited them. Modern balloons are made of fireproof nylon fabrics, have wicker baskets, and are fueled by high velocity propane burners. Modern balloons are powered by one to four burners. How do hot air balloons fly? Hot air balloons are very simple in design, and use propane fueled burners to heat the air inside them and gain altitude. As we all know, hot air rises. Heating the air inside a balloon causes the balloon to lift. More flame makes the balloon go higher, and opening a special valve (the "parachute flap") at the top of the balloon releases the hotter air and slows its ascent, or allows it to descend. How high do hot air balloons go? A typical commercial pleasure balloon flight reaches anywhere from about 500 feet to as much as 3,000 feet altitude above ground level, although flights up to 10,000 feet are possible. Helium balloons using very specialized equipment, including fully enclosed, pressurized cabins, have exceeded 100,000 feet in altitude. The altitude record for hot air balloons is 65,000 feet.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Interesting Info about Jacques and Joseph Joseph was familiar with the researches into gases that Joseph Priestly was currently undertaking in England. He was also aware of the discovery of hydrogen by Henry Cavendish in 1766, and of the implication that a gas which is 14 times as light as air could be made to lift a load if trapped inside an airtight membrane. The production of hydrogen in any quantity had not yet been achieved, however, and it was difficult to find a suitable leak-proof material. The brothers therefore concentrated on the hot-air principle, believing that gases in the smoke from a fire could cause a balloon to rise. In November 1782, Joseph built a box-like chamber (3'x3'x4') out of thin wood and covered the sides and top with taffeta cloth. Under the bottom of the box he crumpled and lit some paper. The box lifted off its stand and promptly collided with the ceiling. Joseph then recruited his brother to help with his experiments. In December he repeated his experiment out of doors, with his entire family as witnesses. This time his box-like balloon went 70 feet into the air and remained aloft for a full minute.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Joseph and Jacques then set about building a contraption three times larger in scale. The lifting force was so great that they lost control of their craft on its very first flight, on December 14, 1782. The "balloon" floated about 1.5 miles before crash landing in the village of Gonesse. The alarmed inhabitants, thinking that it was the skin of a monstrous animal, attacked it with pitchforks and stones, destroying it. Given these initial successes, the brothers were now prepared to make a public demonstration of their "balloon" in order to establish their claim to its invention. They built a globe-shaped balloon of sackcloth with three thin layers of paper inside that could hold almost 28,000 cubic feet of air. On June 5, 1783, they flew this craft at Annonay in front of a group of dignitaries. The flight covered about 1.5 miles, lasted 10 minutes, and reached an altitude of about 6,000 feet. When news of the Montgolfiers' successful flight reached Paris, the Academy of Sciences immediately invited the brothers to set up a demonstration. In collaboration with a wallpaper manufacturer, the brothers constructed a 37,500 cubic foot envelope of taffeta coated with varnish and covered in bright colors. The craft was launched from the Palace of Versailles on September 19, 1783, before a huge crowd that included King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette. Because the effects of traveling in a balloon were unknown, the Montgolfiers decided to make a duck, a cock, and a sheep be the first passengers. The 41-foot-diameter balloon reached an altitude of 1,700 feet before descending gently into the forest about two miles away, after a flight of approximately 8 minutes. The animal passengers were unharmed, except that the sheep had kicked one of the cock's wings and damaged it slightly.

authorStream Live Help