Grammar Book Final

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Libro de Gramática:

Libro de Gramática Por Taloradora

Indice de materiales:

Indice de materiales Pagina Titulada Indice de Materiales Presente (-AR; -ER; -IR) Ser y Estar Verbos Como Gustar Nouns/ Articles/ Adjs Preterite vs Imperfect Subj. in Noun Clause Subjunctive in Adj Clause Commands Object Pronouns Possessive Adj & Pronouns Demonstrative Adj & Pronouns Reflexives Por y Para To Become Future Conditional Present perfect Relative pronouns Neuter lo Que vs. cual Subjunctive in Adv Clause Past Subjunctive Comparisons & Superlatives Adverbs Diminutives & Augmentatives Present Perfect Subjunctive Uses of Se Past Participles as Adjectives Time Expressions with Hacer Future Perfect Conditional Perfect Si Clauses, Transitional Expressions, Pero vs. Sino Passive Voice Negative and Indefinite Expressions Past Perfect Past Perfect Subjunctive Uses of the Infinitive Prepositions

El Presente:

El Presente Present Tense is used to express habitual actions that will take place in the near future. -o - amos -as -a -an -o - emos / imos - es -e -en Yo (I) Nosotros /as (We) Tú (You- informal) El/Ella/ Usted ( He/She /You- formal) Ellos / Ellas / Ustedes (They, You all) -AR -ER/IR SUBJECT PRONOUNS Examples: Bailar Tú bailes bien. (You dance well.) Comer Yo como muchos tacos. (I eat many tacos.) Salir Nosotros salimos de la escuela. (We leave the school.)

El presente: Los verbos con cambios de raíz:

El presente : Los verbos con cambios de raíz 4 Pienso Pensamos Piensas Piensa Piensan (e-ie) Puedo Podemos Puedes Puede Pueden (o-ue) Pido Pedimos Pides Pide Piden (e-i) Poder Pensar Pedir Jugar has a u- ue stem change in all but the nosotros form; incluir and destruir have an i -y stem change in all but the nosotros form.

El presente: “YO” Irregular:

El presente : “YO” Irregular Verbs with –go in the yo form Tener Oir Hacer Tengo Tenemos Tienes Tiene Tienen Oigo Oimos Oyes Oye Oyen Hago Hacemos Haces Hace Hacen Other verbs with an irregular yo form Protejo Protegemos Proteges Proteje Protegen Conocer (c-zc) Proteger (e-ie) Conozco Conocemos Conoces Conoce Conocen Ir Voy Vamos Vas Va Van Ser Soy Somos Eres Es Son Estar Estoy Estamos Estas Está Están Dar Doy Damos Das Da Dan

PowerPoint Presentation:

6 Ser Estar Time: Hour, day, and date. ¿Qué hora es ? Possesion Es de Pepe Origin Soy de America. Occupation Soy maestra . Nationality Soy americana . Political/ Religious Affiliation Somos católicos. Geographic or Physical Location ¿Dónde estás ? State or Condition ¿Cómo estás tú? Many Idiomatic Expressions estar de acuerdo . Progressive Tenses Estoy comiendo galletas. Where an event is taking place Es en la plaza. Essential Qualities Eres muy bonita, Sra. Linares. Although both verbs Mean “to be”, ESTAR is temporary. SER is permanent. For conjugation, look at slide #5.

Ser y estar: con adjectivos:

Ser y estar : con adjectivos Ser and estar both mean “to be”, but the context they are used in can mean two very different things. POR EJEMPLO SER Taloradora es muy simpatica ( Taloradora is very nice.) ESTAR Taloradora esta muy simpatica hoy. ( Taloradora is very nice today.) As you can see, the sentence using SER implies that Taloradora generally always has a nice personality. The sentence using ESTAR implies that Taloradora is only being nice today, which is temporary and not a general personality trait.

Los verbos como gustar:

Los verbos como gustar “ Gustar ” is unique because it’s only conjugated two ways: “ Gusta ” and “ Gustan ”. Which form of gustar used depends on whether the direct object is singular or plural. Gustar To like Molestar To be a bother Fascinar To be fascinating to Aburrir To bore Importar To be important to Interesar To be interesting to Disgustar To hate something Doler (e- ue ) To be painful Encantar To “love” something Quedar To remain Examples: Gustar Me gustan los flores. (I like the flowers.) Encantar Te encanta comprar. ( You love to shop.) Doler Nos duelen los pies. (We hurt our feet.) Me duele la mano. (I hurt my hand.) Verbs similar to gustar are conjugated the same way .

Sustantivos Y articulos:

Sustantivos Y articulos In Spanish, nouns normally come in either a “masculine” form or a “feminine” form. Words ending in –o, -or-, -l, -s, and –ma are usually masculine. Words ending in –a, -ora, -ión, -d, and –z are usually feminine. Por Ejemplo: Masculine: El amigo, el escritor, el papel, el paraguas, el tema Feminine: La amiga, la escritora, la ilusión, la amistad, la paz Masculine nouns are preceded by the definite article “el” or the indefinite article “un”. Feminine nouns are preceded by the definite article “la” or the indefinite article “una”. Plural nouns are typically formed by adding –s to nouns ending in a vowel and –es to nouns ending in a consonant. Nouns that end in –z change to –c before adding –es. If a singular noun ends in a stressed vowel, the plural form ends in –es. If the last syllable of a singular noum ending in –s is unstressed, the plural form does not change. Por Ejemplo: -s, -es, and –ces El hombre – Los hombres La novia – Las novias La mujer – Las mujeres El lápiz – Los lápices Por Ejemplo: stressed & unstressed El tabú – Los tabúes El israelí – Los israelíes El lunes – Los lunes La crisis – Las crisis


adjectivos Spanish adjectives, or adjetivos, agree in gender and number with the nouns they modify. Most adjectives ending in –e or a consonant have the same masculine and feminine forms. Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Masculine Rojo Rojos Inteligente Inteligentes Dif ícil Dific íles Feminine Roja Rojas Inteligente Inteligentes Dif ícil Dific íles Descriptive adjectives typically follow their nouns. If one adjective modifies more than one noun, the plural form is used. If one of the nouns is masculine, then the adjective is masculine. Some adjectives have shortened forms when they come before a masculine singular noun. Por Ejemplo: Un libro apasionante A great book Un suegro y una suegra maravillosos A wonderful mother- and father- in law Las parejas contentas The happy couples La literatura y la culturas ecuatorianas Ecuadorian literature and culture Some adjectives change their meaning depending on their position. When the adjective comes before, the meaning is more figurative whereas when the adjective comes after the noun the meaning is more literal.

PowerPoint Presentation:

11 Preterite Imperfect Imperfect is used for actions that were repeated habitually or to “set the stage” for another action. Also, it is used for telling time and stating one’s age . - aba - abamos - abas - aba - aban -ar - ía - íamos - ías - ía - ían -er/ir Veía Veíamos Veías Veía Veían Era Eramos Eras Era Eran Iba Ibamos Ibas Iba iban Ir Ser Ver Trigger Words: Siempre A Veces A Menudo Cadadia Todos los dias Preterite is used for actions that were completed in the past. The endings for preterite are conjugated by being affixed to the end of the infinitives. -é - amos - aste -ó - aron -ar -er/ir -í - imos - iste - ío - ieron Examples: Bailar Tú bailaste bien. (You danced well.) Comer Yo comé muchos tacos. (I ate many tacos.) Salir Nosotros salimos de la escuela. (We left the school.) Trigger Words: Ayer Anoche Anteayer La semana pasado

Present subjunctive:

Present subjunctive Present Subjunctive is different from normal Spanish conjugations because it is a mood instead of a tense. Rather than telling when an action took place, mood reveals how the speaker feels about the action. Subjunctive shows attitudes; it’s uncertain and hypothetical. -e - emos - es -e -en -a - amos -as -a -an -AR -ER/IR main clause + connector + subordinate clause Dar D é Estar Est é Ir Vaya Saber Sepa Haber Hava Ser Sea IRREGULARS W ishing/wanting E motions D oubt D isbelief I mpersonal Expressions N egation G od/grief

Verbs of will & influence:

Verbs of will & influence Sugerir (e- ie ) To suggest Aconsejar To advise Importar To be important, to matter Insistir (en) To insisit (on) Mandar To order Prohibir To prohibit Recomendar To recommend Rogar (o- ue ) To beg, to plead Expressions of emotion Expressions of doubt, disbelief, and denial Dudar To doubt Negar To deny Es imposible It’s impossible Es improbable It’s improbable No es cierto It’s not true, it’s not certain No es seguro It’s not certain No es verdad It’s not true - - - - - - - - - - Alegrarse (de) To be happy Esperar To hope, to wish Sentir (e- ie ) To be sorry, to regret Sorprender To surprise Temer To be afraid, to fear Es triste It’s sad Oj á la que I hope that/ I wish that - - - - - - - - - - Present subjunctive

Present subjunctive: noun clause:

Present subjunctive: noun clause The subjunctive is used mainly in multiple clause sentences which express will, influence, emotion, doubt, or denial. The present subjunctive is formed by dropping the –o from the yo form of the present indicative and adding the subjunctive endings. Verbs with irregular yo from show the same irregularity throughout the forms of the present subjunctive. Verb Conjugation Verb Conjugation Conocer Conozca Tener Tenga Decir Diga Ver Vea Hacer Haga Traer Traiga Por Ejemplo Martina quiere que grabemos este anuncio para el viernes. Martina wants us to record this ad by Friday. Es necesario que lluegen al estreno antes de la una. It’s necessary that they arrive at the premiere before one o’clock. Prefiero que vayas en marzo. I prefer that you go in March. El agobiado recomienda que lea el contrato antes de firmar. The lawyer recommends that I read the contract before signing.

Present subjunctive: adjective clause:

Present subjunctive: adjective clause When the subordinate clause of a sentence refers to something (the antecedent) that is known to exist, the indicative is used. When the antecedent is uncertain or indefinite, the subjunctive is used. Main Clause Busco un trabajo Connector Que Subordinate clause Pague bien Antecedent certain: Indicative Antecedent uncertain: Subjunctive Necesito el libro que tiene una foto de un chico Mexicano. Necesito un libro que tenga una foto de un chico Mexicano. When the antecedent of an adjective clause is a negative pronoun (como nadie o ninguno/a), the subjunctive is used in the subordinate clause. Antecedent certain: Indicative Antecedent uncertain: Subjunctive Elena tiene tres parientes que viven en Los Estados Unidos. Elena no tiene ningún pariente que viva el Limón.


Commands Affirmative Negative T ú Usted / Ustedes T ú Usted / Ustedes Drop the s. Put in yo form and change to opposite vowel. Put in yo form and change to opp vowel, add S. Same as affirmative. Irregulars: di, haz, ve, pon, sal, sé, ten, ven Irregulars: TVDISHES Irregulars: TVDISHES Irregulars: TVDISHES Mono verbs Sentémosnos.  Sent é monos! Vayamos  Vamonos DOP + IOP + ‘se’ must go before negative command. DOP + IOP + ‘se’ can attach to infinitive

Object pronouns: indirect & direct:

Object pronouns: indirect & direct Pronouns are words that take the place of nouns. Direct object pronouns directly receive the action of the verb, while indirect object pronouns indirectly receive the action of the verb. They tell either to whom or for whom . Me Nos Te Lo/la Los/ las Direct Me Nos Te Le Les Indirect Indirect and direct object pronouns precede the conjugated verb. When the verb is an infinitive construction, object pronouns may either be attached to the infinitive or placed before the conjugated verb . Indirect: Debes pedirle el dinero de la apuesta/ le debes pedir el dinero de la apuesta Direct: Voy a hacerlo enseguida/ Lo voy a hacer enseguida Carla siempre me da boletos para el cine . Carla always gives me movie tickets. Ella los consigue gratis. She gets them for free.

Object pronouns: continued:

Object pronouns: continued Lo is also used to refer to an abstract thing or idea that has no gender. Lo pens é (I thought about it) When the verb is in the progressive, object pronouns may be either attached to the present participle or placed before the conjugated verb. Comelo or lo come (eat it) Double object pronouns The indirect object pronoun precedes the direct object pronoun when they are used together in a sentence. Me los mandaron por correo. (Quack.) Le and les change to se when they are used with lo, la, los, or las Se lo da. (Give it to them.) When object pronouns are attached to infinitives, participles, or commands, a written accent is often required to maintain proper word stress.

Possessive adjectives & pronouns:

Possessive adjectives & pronouns Adjectives in the possessive form are used to express ownership. Spanish has two types of possessive adjectives: the stressed (short) forms and the unstresssed (long) forms. Both forms agree in gender and number with the object. Stressed Form Unstressed Form Mi (s) My M ío (s) My/ (of) Mine Tu (s) Your Tuyo /a (s) Your/ (of) Yours Su (s) His, Hers, Its Suyo /a (s) Your (of yours)/ His/ (Of) His.. etc Nuestro /a (s) Our Nuestro /a (s) Our/ (of) ours Su (s) Your/ Their Suyo /a (s) Your/ (of) yours Short possessive adjectives precede the nouns they modify. En mi opimiom. Esa telenovela es pesima. In my opinion, that soap opera is awful. Nuestras revistas favoritas son Money y Music. Our favorite magazines are Money and Music .

Possessive adjectives & pronouns Continued:

Possessive adjectives & pronouns Continued Stressed possessive adjectives follow the nouns they modify. They are used for emphasis or to express the phrases “of mine”, “of yours”, etc. The nouns are usually preceded by a definite or indefinite article. Tus amigas  Las amigas tuyas. Because sus and suyo/as have multiple meanings, the construction [article] + [noun] + [de] + [subject pronoun] can be used to clarify. Su casa/ la casa suya  La casa de el/ella/usted/ustedes Possessive pronouns have the same forms as stressed possessive adjectives and are preceded by a definite article. Possessive pronouns agree in gender and number with the nouns they replace. No encuentro mi libro. Si la amiga suya no llegada, la nuestra iría.

Demonstrative adjectives and pronouns:

Demonstrative adjectives and pronouns Demonstrative adjectives specify to which noun a speaker is referring. They precede the nouns they modify and agree in gender and number. Singular Plural Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine Este Esta Estos Estas Ese Esa Esos Esas Aquel Aquella Aquellos Aquellas Demonstrative pronouns are identical to demonstrative adjectives, except that they contain an accent mark on the stressed vowel. They also agree in gender and number with the nouns they replace. No quiero esté. Quiero esé. No leí éstas, pero sí leí aquéllas. There are three neutral demonstrative pronouns: esto, eso, and aquello. These forms refer to unspecified things or ideas. They do not vary in gender or number nor do they carry an accent. Eso es interesante.

Prepositional Pronouns:

Prepositional Pronouns Prepositional pronouns function as the objects of prepositions. Except for mi, ti, and si, they are identical to their corresponding subject pronouns. Lo compramos para él. M í Me, myself T ú You, yourself Usted You, yourself El Him, it Ella Her, it S í Himself, Herself, Itself Nosotros /as Us, ourselves Ustedes You, yourselves Ellos / Ellas Them S í Themselves [ A + prepositional pronoun ] is often used for clarity or emphasis.

Prepositional pronouns #2:

Prepositional pronouns #2 The pronoun sí (himself, herself, itself) is the prepositional pronoun used to refer back to the same third-person subject. When mi, ti, and si are used with con, they become conmigo, contigo, and consigo Quieres ir conmigo al museo? These prepositions are used with tú and yo instead of mi and ti: entre, incluso, excepto, menos, salvo, según.


reflexives Reflexive verbs always use reflexive pronouns (me, te, se, nos, os, se). In a reflexive construction, the subject of the verb both performs and receives the action. Elena se lava la cara. Lavarse (to wash oneself) Yo Me lavo T ú Te lavas Ud ./ él / ella Se lava Nosotros /as Nos lavamos Uds ./ ellos / ellas Se lavan Many of the verbs used to describe daily routines and personal care are reflexive. Many verbs change meaning when they are used with a reflexive pronoun. Aburrir: To bore Aburrirse: To be bored

PowerPoint Presentation:

25 POR PARA Portal Expressing movement along, through, around, by, or about . Porever Duration of time Porpose Reason/motive for an action . Import/Export An exchange. Portugal Motion or general location . I’m por, pay for me! Doing something in place of someone else. Parapose Expressing purpose. Paramedic A time limit. Paraguay Destination/movement towards a place. Para-cel Addressee/recipient of action. Com-para-son A comparison.

To become:

To become Spanish has several verbs and phrases that mean to become . Many of these constructions make use of reflexive verbs. The construction [ ponerse + adjective ] expresses a change in mental, emotional, or physical state that is generally not long-lasting. No te pongas cansada. The construction [ volverse + adjective } expresses a radical mental or psychological change. It often conveys a gradual or irreversible change in character. In English this is often expressed as to have become + adjective. Te has vuelto loca. Hacerse can be followed by a noun or an adjective. It often implies a change that results from the subject’s own efforts, such as changes in possession. Le yerno de Lidia se ha hecho agobiado. Llegar a ser can also be followed by a noun or an adjective. It indicates a change over time and does not imply the subject’s voluntary effort. La novela que escribio ha llegado a ser un superventas.

El futuro:

El futuro El futuro is used to explain what someone will do in the future. To conjugate, you just keep it in the infinitive and attach the ending to the end. All Spanish verbs use the same ending: -e - emos -as -a -an Examples: Gustar Me gustare los flores. (I will like the flowers.) Encantara Te encantaras comprar. ( You will love to shop.) Decir D ir - Hacer Har - Salir - Saldr - Saber Sabr - Querer Querr - Tener Tendr - IRREGULARS

El COndicional:

El COndicional El Condicional is used to express probability, conjecture, possibility, or wonder. It’s what someone WOULD or MIGHT do. It’s conjugated like the future tense by simply affixing an ending to the infinitive. Conditional and future share all the same irregulars. - ia - iamos - ias - ia - ian Examples: Gustar Me gustaria los flores. (I would like the flowers.) Encantara Te encantarias comprar. ( You would love to shop.)

El presente perfecto:

El presente perfecto Present perfect is used to express past actions that continue into the present or continue to affect the person in the present. It explains what someone has done. The object pronoun is placed before the auxiliary verb. -He - Hemos -Has -Ha -Han Auxiliary Verbs Auxiliary Verb + Past Participle Decir D icho Hacer Hecho Abrir Abierto Poner Puesto Romper Roto Ir Ido IRREGULARS

Pronombres relativos:

Pronombres relativos Pronombres relativos refer to an already-stated noun. There are six: Que: “That” El Que Lo Que Cuyo Quien: “Who” El Cual Que vs. Quien: Que means that and quien means who. Quien refers ONLY to people. It must also agree in number, so if it’s plural it will be written as “quienes”. El Que, El Cual y Lo Que: El Que means ”the one that/ who”. It must agree in gender and number. (los que, la que, las que). El Cual is the more formal form of el que. Lo que means “That which” and “that what” and refers to an abstract idea, rather than someone or something specific, like above. Cuyo: means “Whose” and must agree in gender and number (cuyos cuya, cuyas). It depends on what is being owned.

Neuter lo:

Neuter lo “Lo” is a neuter article. It is used in front of an adjective to express something that is abstract or a quality. Lo + adjective + que = How [adjective] Lo facil The easy part Lo bueno The good thing Lo bello What’s beautiful Lo justo What’s fair Lo mejor The best part COMMON EXPRESSIONS

PowerPoint Presentation:

QUE CUAL Asking for Directions Normally used before nouns Used in idioms. Normally used before terms of ser when not asking for a definition. Suggesting a selection or choice from a group Both mean “what” or “which” but have different uses.

El subjunctivo: adverb clauses:

El subjunctivo : adverb clauses It is conjugated exactly the same as noun and adverbial clauses. It’s a dependent clause that modifies the verb in the independent clause- the verb is hypothetical or anticipated. Por Ejemplo Voy a esperar hasta que vuelvas. Past/ imperfect subjunctive It follows the same rules as present subjunctive, but expresses in the past. The verb in the independent clause will be in either imperfect or preterite tense. -ra –ramos -ras –rais -ra –ran

Past subjunctive:

Past subjunctive Instead of beginning with the first person singular of the present, the third person plural of the preterite is used. The endings are universal with – ar , - er , and - ir verbs. - ra - ramos - ras - ra -ran The vowel in front of the nosotros conjugation must have an accent mark. The second set of endings work the same, but are less frequently used. -se - semos - ses -se - sen

Comparatives & superlatives:

Comparatives & superlatives Comparisons of inequality are expressed by using one of the following: Mas + adj + que Mas + adverb + que Mad + noun + que If the comparative is followed by a number, use de rather than que unless the sentence is negative. Comparisons of Equality: To form comparisons of equality Tan + adj + como Tanto + noun + como Verb + tanto + como Verb + tan + adjecttive (masculine form) + como 2 types of superlative: relative & absolute. The relative superlative describes a noun within the context of some larger group. In Spanish, the relative superlative construction is similar to the comparative. Definite article + noun + mas + adj + de The noun can be omitted, however. The absolute superlative for adjectives has three possible forms: Muy + adjective Sumamente + adj Adjective + isimo


Adverbs Adverbs are words that describe, or modify, verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. Most spanish adverbs are formed by adding – mente to the feminine singular form of the adjective. They can also be formed is to use the structure [con + singular form of noun] Cuidadoso Cuidadosamente / con cuidado Perfecto Perfectamente / con perfeccion Some adverbs do not follow any pattern of origination, and must simply be memorized. Bastante Mal muy When to adverbs modify the same verb, only the second one uses the – mente ending.

Diminutives & augmentatives:

Diminutives & augmentatives Diminutives are words that indicate smallness or show affection. They are very common in spanish and are formed by affixing – ito to the end of a noun in place of –o or –a El nino - el ninito La mesa- la mesita Some words require spelling changes. El lago - el laguito La chica - la chiquita The endings vary by region, but – ito / - ita is the most commonly understood. Augmented words indicate that something is large or undesirable. They are formed by afficing – azo or - aza to the end of a noun. Exitazo They can also be formed using –on or – ona , or – ote or – ota Mujer - mujerona Sillon - ucho or – ucha is also common Agobaducho poblacho - azo typically indicates a blow or strike.

Present perfect subjunctive:

Present perfect subjunctive The present perfect subjunctive is used when a verb or expression requiring the subjunctive in the main clause is in the present, future, or present perfect. The present subjunctive is used when the dependent clause is in the present or future, while the present perfect subjunctive is used when the dependent clause is in the past. The present perfect subjunctive is a compound verb formed with the subjunctive of the auxiliary verb haber + the past participle of the main verb. Haya Hablado Hayamos Hablado Hayas Hablado Haya Hablado Hayan Hablado Hablar Haya salido Hayamos salido Hayas salido Haya salido Hayan salido Salir

Uses of se:

Uses of se In Spanish, se is often used as a substitute for the passive voice when the person performing the action is not stated. The third person singular verb form is used with singular nouns, and the third person plural form is used with plural nouns. Como se dice, “to swallow”? When the passive se refers to a specific person or persons, the personal a is used and the verb is always singular. The impersonal se is used with third person singular verbs in impersonal constructions where the subject of the sentence is indefinite. Constructions with impersonal se are most frequently found on signs and warnings. Se requiere que los padres visiten la oficina . Se is also used t o express impersonal events.

Past participles as adjectives:

Past participles as adjectives Past participles are used with haber to form compound tenses, i.e. present perfect and past perfect, and with ser to express the passive voice. They are also frequently used as adjectives. When the past participle is used as an adjective, it agrees in number and gender with the noun it modifies. Un proyecto complicado Past participles may be used to modify other verbs as well. Ese libro es tan aburrido . Past participles are often used as adjectives to describe physical or emotional states.

Time expressions with hacer:

Time expressions with hacer In Spanish, the verb hacer is used to describe how long something has been happening or how long ago an event occurred. It follows this format: Hace + period of time + que + verb To express the duration of an event that continues in the present, Spanish uses this construction. To make a sentence negative, just add no before the verb. To tell how long ago an event occurred, put the verb in preterite .

Future perfect:

Future perfect The future perfect tense is formed with the future tense of haber and a past participle. It is used to express what will have happened at a certain point. Para + time expression Habre Habremos Habras Habra Habran Antes de ( que ), cuando , dentro de, and hasta ( que ) are also used with time expressions or other verb forms to indicate when the action in the future perfect will have happened.

Conditional perfect:

Conditional perfect The conditional perfect tense is also formed with the conditional of haber and a past participle. It is often used to express what would have occurred but did not. Habria Habriamos Habrias Habria Habrian It may also express probability or conjecture about the past.

Si clauses, transitional expressions, pero vs. sino:

Si clauses, transitional expressions, pero vs. sino Si clauses express condition or events upon which another condition or event depends. They are often hypothetical statements. They contain a subordinate clause and a main clause. Si means “if” in English. Si pudiera vivir nuevamente , trataria de cometer mas errores . Hypothetical statements about the future use the present indicative while the result clause may use the present indicative; about the present use past subjunctive; about the past uses the past perfect subjunctive. Habitual conditions and actions in the past use imperfect. Transitional expressions express connections between ideas and details. They mainly are used to narrate time and sequence. They contrast or compare ideas and details, or express cause and effect relationships. [ Al final, hoy, al mismo tiempo , luego , al pricipio , manana , anteayer … ] Both pero and sino are used to introduce contradictions or qualifications, but the two words aren’t interchangeable.

Passive voice:

Passive voice The passive voice is used when the recipient of the action is also the subject of the sentence. Passive statements follow the pattern [ Recipient ] + [ ser ] + [ past participle ] + [ por ] + [ agent ] La frontera es vigilada por el policia . Singular forms of ser are used with singular recipients and plural forms are used with plural recipients. In addition, the past participle must agree in number and gender with the recipient.

Negative and indefinite expressions:

Negative and indefinite expressions Indefinite words refer to people and things that are not specific while negative words deny/ contradict statements. Indefinite words: algo , alguien , alguno , algun , siempre , tambien Negative words: Nada, nadie , ni , ninguno , ningun , nunca , jamas , tampoco Double negatives are the correct way to formulate a sentence. Once one negative word is used, all other indefinite ideas must also be used in the negative.

Past perfect:

Past perfect The past perfect tense is structured with the imperfect tense of the verb haber and a past participle. As with other perfect tenses, the past participle does not change form. Habia Habiamos Habias Habia Habian The past perfect expresses what someone had done or what had occurred before another actions or condition in the past.

Past perfect subjunctive:

Past perfect subjunctive The past perfect subjunctive is formed with the past subjunctive of the verb haber and a past participle. It is used in subordinate clauses under the same conditions for other subjunctive forms. Hubiera Hubieramos Hubieras Hubiera Hubieran It refers to actions or conditions that had taken place before another past occurrence When the action un the main clause is in the past, both the past subjunctive and the past perfect subjunctive can be used in the subordinate.

Uses of the infinitive:

Uses of the infinitive When used as a noun, the infinitive is masculine and always singular. It is used as a subject object and as a nominative. As you may notice, the definite article el is not consistently used with the noun infinitive. It is most often used un certain set phrases and following some prepositions. When verbs are followed by Spanish infinitives, they are cool. I hate this. Examples include: Ir a, pensar en, tener que , tratar de Sensory verbs are followed by an infinitive. Watch out for the word order.

Prepositions: a, hacia, con de, desde, en, entre, hasta, sin:

Prepositions: a, hacia , con de, desde , en, entre, hasta, sin The preposition a can mean to, at, for, upo , within, of, from, or by, depending on the context. A introduces indirect objects. When a DO is a person, it is preceded by the personal a. With movement, hacia means toward or to. With time, hacia means approx., around, about, or toward. The prespoition con means with. I am so tired of this grammar book, this is the last slide. Thank the lord. Hopefully you’re just skimming this because I intentionally made this text a pain in the butt to read, all you see is a wall of text and youre like ok, good job Taloradora , 100 for you. I need that 100 because I hate this class and I’m so glad I’m NOT taking spanish next year. Entre is typically followed by the pronouns tu and yo . Hasta corresponds to English as far as in spatial relationships, until in time relationships, and up to for quantities.